, Volume 96, Issue 9, pp 1107–1113 | Cite as

Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

  • Panayiotis PafilisEmail author
  • Shai Meiri
  • Johannes Foufopoulos
  • Efstratios Valakos
Short Communication


Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.


Podarcis gaigeae Insularity Cannibalism Seabird subsidy Population density 



The study is in full compliance with Greek legislation for the Protection of Wildlife and Environment and was approved by the officer responsible for the well-being of study animals in the University of Athens. All animals were released into the wild after the end of the study. We are grateful to Wolfgang Böhme for offering access to the herpetological collections of the AKZM in Bonn and to our skipper Kyriakos Antonopoulos for local transportation. We also thank P. Lymberakis for map preparation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panayiotis Pafilis
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Shai Meiri
    • 3
  • Johannes Foufopoulos
    • 1
  • Efstratios Valakos
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Natural Resources & EnvironmentUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Classical Studies, Modern Greek ProgramUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.NERC Centre for Population BiologyImperial College LondonAscotUK
  4. 4.Department of BiologyUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

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