, Volume 96, Issue 6, pp 703–712

Direct and indirect fossil records of megachilid bees from the Paleogene of Central Europe (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

  • Sonja Wedmann
  • Torsten Wappler
  • Michael S. Engel
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00114-009-0525-x

Cite this article as:
Wedmann, S., Wappler, T. & Engel, M.S. Naturwissenschaften (2009) 96: 703. doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0525-x


Aside from pollen and nectar, bees of the subfamily Megachilinae are closely associated with plants as a source of materials for nest construction. Megachilines use resins, masticated leaves, trichomes and other plant materials sometimes along with mud to construct nests in cavities or in soil. Among these, the leafcutter bees (Megachile s.l.) are the most famous for their behaviour to line their brood cells with discs cut from various plants. We report on fossil records of one body fossil of a new non-leafcutting megachiline and of 12 leafcuttings from three European sites—Eckfeld and Messel, both in Germany (Eocene), and Menat, France (Paleocene). The excisions include the currently earliest record of probable Megachile activity and suggest the presence of such bees in the Paleocene European fauna. Comparison with extant leafcuttings permits the interpretation of a minimal number of species that produced these excisions. The wide range of size for the leafcuttings indirectly might suggest at least two species of Megachile for the fauna of Messel in addition to the other megachiline bee described here. The presence of several cuttings on most leaves from Eckfeld implies that the preferential foraging behaviour of extant Megachile arose early in megachiline evolution. These results demonstrate that combined investigation of body and trace fossils complement each other in understanding past biodiversity, the latter permitting the detection of taxa not otherwise directly sampled and inferences on behavioural evolution.


Insecta Apoidea Anthophila Leafcutter bees Ichnology Biodiversity Tertiary Eckfeld Messel Menat 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonja Wedmann
    • 1
  • Torsten Wappler
    • 2
  • Michael S. Engel
    • 3
  1. 1.Forschungsstation Grube MesselForschungsinstitut SenckenbergMesselGermany
  2. 2.Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie, und PaläontologieUniversität BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Division of Entomology (Paleoentomology), Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Natural History MuseumUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations