A number of arthropod taxa contain metals in their mandibles (jaws), such as zinc, manganese, iron, and calcium. The occurrence of zinc and its co-located halogen chlorine have been studied in relation to the mechanical properties and shown to be linked in a direct fashion with increasing concentration. Hardness along with elastic modulus (stiffness) has also been linked to zinc and halogen concentration in some marine polychaete worms. The metal appears to be incorporated within the biological matrix, possibly bonding with proteins. However, the comparative advantage of metal inclusion has not been tested. It is possible that without metals, alternative mechanisms are used to achieve hardness of equal value in similar ‘tools’ such as mandibles. This question has direct bearing on the significance of metal hardening. In the present article, we compare across mandibles from six termite species, including samples with major zinc concentration, minor manganese, and no metals. Nanoindentation, electron microscopy, and electron microanalysis are used to assess metal concentration, form, and mechanical properties. The data demonstrate that termite mandibles lacking metals when fully developed have lower values for hardness and elastic modulus. Zinc is linked to a relative 20% increase in hardness when compared with mandibles devoid of metals. The similar transition metal, manganese, found in minor concentrations, is not linked to any significant increase in these mechanical properties. This raises the question of the function of manganese, which is as commonly found in insect mandibles as zinc and often located in the same mandibles.
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We gratefully acknowledge supply of some termite samples from Dr Michael K. Rust, Department of Entomology, UCR, Riverside, USA; Dr B. Peters, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries; and Mrs Rachel Hancock Narangbar, Queensland, Australia. HH is grateful for experimental assistance by Mr. B. L. Wang at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.
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Cribb, B.W., Stewart, A., Huang, H. et al. Insect mandibles—comparative mechanical properties and links with metal incorporation. Naturwissenschaften 95, 17–23 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-007-0288-1
- Young’s modulus