Sodium fluoride (NaF), a widespread natural pollutant was given to sperm-positive female rats throughout gestation and lactation at a dose of 4.5 and 9.0 ppm via drinking water. The neonates were allowed to grow up to 90 days on tap water, and then sperm parameters, testicular steroidogenic marker enzyme activity levels, and circulatory hormone levels were studied. The sperm count, sperm motility, sperm coiling (hypoosmotic swelling test), and sperm viability were decreased in experimental rats when compared with controls. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) were significantly decreased in experimental animals indicating decreased steroidogenesis. The serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were also significantly altered in experimental animals. Our data indicate that exposure to NaF during gestation and lactation affects male reproduction in adult rats by decreasing spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Belsey MA, Moghissi KS, Eliasson R, Paulsen CA, Callegos AJ, Prasad MRN (1980) Laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen cervical mucus interaction. Press Concern, Singapore
Bergmayer HU (1974) β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. In: Bergmayer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis, vol I. Academic, New York, pp 447–489
Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV (1994) In vitro toxicity in human spermatozoa. Reprod Toxicol 8:155–159
Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E (1992) Reversible fluoride induced fertility impairment in male mice. Fluoride 25:71–76
Chinoy NJ, Sharma AK (2000) Reversal of fluoride induced alterations in cauda epididymal spermatozoa and fertility impairment in male mice. Environ Sci 7:29–38
Chinoy NJ, Sequeira E, Narayana MV (1991) Effects of vitamin C and calcium on the reversibility of fluoride induced alterations in spermatozoa of rabbit. Fluoride 24:29–39
Chinoy NJ, Pradeep PK, Sequeira E (1992) Effect of fluoride ingestion on the physiology of reproductive organs of male rat. J Environ Biol 13:55–61
Chinoy NJ, Reddy VVPC, Mathews M (1994) Beneficial effects of ascorbic acid and calcium on reproductive functions of fluoride treated prepubertal male rats. Fluoride 27:67–75
Chinoy NJ, Mehta D, Jhala DD (2006) Effects of fluoride ingestion with protein deficient or protein enriched diets on sperm function of mice. Fluoride 39:11–16
Elbetieha A, Darmani H, Hiyasat ASA (2000) Fertility effects of sodium fluoride in male mice. Fluoride 33:128–134
Freni SC (1994) Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates. J Toxicol Environ Health 42:109–112
Goh EH, Neff AW (2003) Effects of fluoride on Xenophus embryo development. Food Chem Toxicol 41:1501–1508
Greenwood FC, Hunter WM, Clover JS (1963) The preparation of 131I labelled human growth hormone of high specific radioactivity. Biochem J 89:114–123
Jeyendran RS, Vander Ven HH, Zaneveld LID (1992) The hypoosmotic swelling test: an update. Arch Androl 29:105–116
Kour K, Singh J (1980) Histological finding of testes following fluoride ingestion. Fluoride 13:160–162
Lin KC, Kawamura N, Okamura H, Mori T (1988) Inhibition of ovulation, steroidogenesis and collagenolytic activity in rabbits by sulphide induced hyperprolactinemia. J Reprod Fertil 83:611–618
Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ (1994) Effect of fluoride on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Fluoride 27:7–12
Ortiz-Perez D, Rodriguez-Martinez M, Martinez F, Borja-Aburta VH, Castelo J, Grimaldo JI, de la Cruz E, Carrizales L, Diaz-Barriga F (2003) Fluoride-induced disruption of reproductive hormones in men. Environ Res 93:20–30
Pati PC, Bhunya SP (1987) Genotoxic effect of an environmental pollutant, sodium fluoride, in mammalian in vivo test system. Caryologia 40:79–87
Pushpalatha T, Srinivas M, Sreenivasula Reddy P (2005) Exposure to high fluoride concentration in drinking water will affect spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male albino rats. BioMetals 18:207–212
Ramamohan Rao NV, Bhaskaran CS (1964) Endemic fluorosis; study of distribution of fluorine in water sources in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Med Res 52:180–186
Rao AJ, Charaborti R, Kotagi SG, Ravindranath N (1990) Effect of constant infusion of gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist buserelin and antagonist CDB 2085 A using osmotic minipumps on testicular function in adult male bonnet monkey (Macac radiata). Andrologia 22:567–573
Sprando RL, Collins TFX, Black TN, Rorie J, Ames MJ, O’Donnell M (1997) Testing the potential of sodium fluoride to affect spermatogenesis in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 35:881–890
Susheela AK, Jethanandani P (1996) Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 34:183–189
Talbot P, Chacon RS (1981) A triple stain technique for evaluating normal acrosome reaction of human sperm. J Exp Zool 215:201–208
Tao S, Suttie JW (1976) Evidence for a lack of effect of dietary fluoride level on reproduction in mice. J Nutr 106:1115–1122
Van Thiel DH, Sherins RJ, Myers GH Jr, DeVita VT Jr (1972) Evidence for a specific seminiferous tubular factor affecting follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in man. J Clin Invest 51:1009–1019
Wan S, Zhang J, Wang J (2006) Effect of high fluoride on sperm quality and testicular histology in male rats. Fluoride 39:17–21
Zar JH (1996) One sample hypothesis. In: Zar JH (ed) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp 93–98
The authors are grateful to the Head of the Department of Biotechnology, S.V. University, Tirupati, India for the encouragement. We thank Prof. K.V.S. Sarma for the statistical analysis of data, Mr. S. Umasankar for maintaining the rat colony in the Department.
About this article
Cite this article
Reddy, P.S., Pushpalatha, T. & Reddy, P.S. Suppression of male reproduction in rats after exposure to sodium fluoride during early stages of development. Naturwissenschaften 94, 607–611 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-007-0224-4