Melatonin and serotonin are indoleamine neurohormones that function as photoperiod signals in many species and have recently been found in St. John's wort, a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression. There is no known role for melatonin in higher plants but melatonin functions as a signal of changes in photoperiod in other species. In the current study, serotonin and melatonin were quantified during flower development. Higher concentrations of serotonin were found in flower buds at the tetrad stage of microspore development and higher melatonin concentrations were detected during uninucleate mircosporogenesis. Additionally, the regeneration potential of isolated anthers was highest in the same stage that had elevated melatonin concentrations. These data provide the first evidence of the presence of melatonin during flower development and raise many questions about the potential roles of serotonin and melatonin as regulatory molecules in the reproductive flexibility of higher plants.