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Integrative oder alternative Kinder- und Jugendmedizin?

Spagat zwischen Innovation und Scharlatanerie

Integrative or alternative pediatric medicine?

Balancing act between innovation and charlatanry

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Zusammenfassung

Bei alternativer Medizin und Komplementärmedizin handelt es sich um Sammelbezeichnungen für Therapien, die als Alternative oder Ergänzung zur Schulmedizin angewendet werden. Eine wirklich alternative Medizin ist generell bei relevanten Erkrankungen extrem problematisch, wenn etablierte Therapiekonzepte vorhanden sind. Daher handelt es sich in der Kinderheilkunde um eine ergänzende Behandlung – also um Komplementärmedizin. Mit dem Begriff integrative Medizin wird eine Kombination aus bester evidenzbasierter Schulmedizin und komplementärmedizinischen Verfahren bezeichnet. In der allgemeinen Bevölkerung und in der Kinderheilkunde nimmt die Nutzung von Komplementärmedizin seit Jahren zu. Asiatische Therapieverfahren wie Akupunktur, Traditionelle Chinesische Medizin oder das Spektrum der Mind-Body-Medizin gewinnen international immer mehr an Bedeutung, und in Deutschland verankerte Therapieverfahren wie Naturheilkunde, Phytotherapie, anthroposophische Medizin und Homöopathie werden häufig auch in der Kinderheilkunde in Anspruch genommen und auf erfahrungsheilkundlicher Basis angewendet. Die eingesetzten Medikamente einiger komplementärmedizinischer Richtungen werden im Arzneimittelgesetz (AMG) als „besondere Therapierichtungen“ bezeichnet und durch das Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (BfArM) nach eigenen Kriterien zugelassen bzw. registriert. Obwohl im deutschen AMG eine Methodenvielfalt verankert ist, gibt es viel zu wenige wissenschaftliche Daten. Ziel des Beitrags ist die Darstellung der Komplementärmedizin in der Kinderheilkunde mit einem Plädoyer für mehr qualitativ gute Forschung in diesem Bereich, damit die Chancen innovativer Verfahren der Komplementärmedizin im Sinne einer integrativen Medizin genutzt und die Risiken minimiert werden können.

Abstract

Alternative medicine and complementary medicine are collective terms for therapies that are used as alternatives or supplements to conventional medicine. A truly alternative medicine is generally extremely problematic for relevant diseases if established treatment concepts are available. As a rule the treatment in pediatrics therefore always has to be a supplementary treatment, i.e. complementary medicine. The term integrative medicine refers to a combination of the best evidence-based conventional medicine and complementary medicine procedures. In the general population and in pediatrics the use of complementary medicine has been increasing for many years. Asian therapeutic procedures, such as acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine or the spectrum of mind-body medicine are becoming more and more important internationally and therapeutic methods anchored in Germany, such as naturopathy, phytotherapy, anthroposophic medicine and homeopathy are also frequently used in pediatrics and applied on an experiential basis. The drugs used in some complementary medical systems are referred to in the German Medicines Act (AMG) as “particular therapeutic systems” and approved by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfAM) according to its own criteria. Although a variety of methods are anchored in the German AMG, there are far too little scientific data. The aim of this article is to present complementary medicine in pediatrics with a plea for more high-quality research in this field so that the opportunities offered by innovative procedures of complementary medicine can be exploited in the sense of integrative medicine and the risks minimized.

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Correspondence to G. Seifert.

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Interessenkonflikt

G. Seifert erhielt finanzielle Mittel zur Durchführung von Symposien, Vortragshonorare und Reisekostenerstattungen von den Firmen: Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, SALUS Pharma GmbH, Aurora Europe GmbH, Ligetis GmbH, Weleda AG, Helixor Heilmittel GmbH. A. Längler und T. Zuzak und geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Für diesen Beitrag wurden von den Autoren keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren durchgeführt. Für die aufgeführten Studien gelten die jeweils dort angegebenen ethischen Richtlinien.

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R. Kerbl, Leoben

W. Kaulfersch, Klagenfurt am Wörthersee

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Seifert, G., Zuzak, T. & Längler, A. Integrative oder alternative Kinder- und Jugendmedizin?. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 167, 758–767 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00112-019-0737-x

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