Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde

, Volume 163, Issue 8, pp 783–789 | Cite as

Säuglingsernährung und Geschmacksprägung

Einfluss früher sensorischer Erfahrungen auf die kindliche Ernährung
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Das komplexe System des Geschmackssinns ist beim reifen Neugeborenen bereits funktionsfähig. Über die sensorische Variation der Amnionflüssigkeit unter dem Einfluss der mütterlichen Ernährung entsteht beim Fetus eine Vorläuferversion seines späteren sensorischen Umfelds. Postnatal wird die sensorische Mutter-Kind-Dyade über das Stillen fortgeführt. Die Beikost leitet unmittelbar in das familiäre, auch soziokulturell geprägte Ernährungsumfeld über. Säuglinge reagieren auf Geschmacksreize nach dem beim Menschen universellen Muster, indem die Geschmacksqualitäten süß, aber auch salzig und umami präferiert, bitter und sauer abgelehnt werden. Derartige Präferenzen stehen im Widerspruch zu der empfohlenen Kinderernährung. Sie können in möglicherweise sensitiven Zeitfenstern moduliert werden. In der Phase der Beikosteinführung sind Säuglinge offen für neue sensorische Erfahrungen. Lebensmittelvariation und Verwendung tiefgefrorener Gemüsebeikost können die Akzeptanz neuer Lebensmittel erhöhen. Anfängliche Ablehnung unbekannter Lebensmittel lässt sich durch wiederholtes zwangloses Anbieten überwinden. Aus den verfügbaren heterogenen Studien zeichnen sich zwar Hinweise auf eine mögliche Prägung von Lebensmittelpräferenzen durch frühe intensive sensorische Erfahrungen ab. Die Verifizierung durch längerfristige Nachbeobachtungen steht aber noch aus. Vorsichtig interpretiert stützen die derzeitigen Erkenntnisse die allgemein empfohlene variationsreiche Kost für Mutter und Kind von Anfang an auch aus sensorischer Perspektive.

Schlüsselwörter

Sinneseindruck Lebensmittelpräferenz Stillen Beikost Pränatale Exposition 

Infant nutrition and taste imprinting

Impact of early sensory experiences on childhood nutrition

Abstract

The complex system of the sense of taste is already functioning in the full term newborn. The sensory variation in the amniotic fluid resulting from the maternal diet results in the fetus forming a draft of the later sensory environment. The sensory mother-child dyad continues postnatally via breastfeeding. The complementary food immediately transfers to the familial and socioculturally imprinted nutritional environment. Infants react to taste stimuli according to the universal pattern of the human species in that they have a particular preference for sweet taste and also salty and umami, while rejecting bitter and sour. Such preferences are in contrast to the recommendations for child nutrition. They can be modulated in possibly sensitive developmental periods. In the period of the introduction of complementary food, infants are open-minded towards new sensory experiences. Variation in food offered and use of deep frozen complementary vegetable meals may increase acceptance of new food even several months later. Initial rejection of previously unknown food can be overcome by repeated and unforced presentation. Although the available heterogeneous studies point to a potential imprinting of food preferences by early sensory experiences, evidence from longer term follow-up studies is still missing. By cautious interpretation, the general recommendations for a varied and balanced diet for mother and child from the very beginning can also be supported from a sensory perspective.

Keywords

Sensation Food preferences Breastfeeding Complementary feeding Prenatal exposure 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forschungsinstitut für Kinderernährung DortmundUniversität BonnDortmundDeutschland
  2. 2.Zentrum für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, UKGM/Standort GießenJustus-Liebig UniversitätGießenDeutschland

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