Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is detected in abundance in Brassica vegetables, and some previous studies have demonstrated that BITC may potentially function as a chemopreventive agent in humans. This study examined whether BITC inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema formation. The treatment of macrophages with various concentrations of BITC resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the LPS-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 and their corresponding mRNA levels, as well as in the production of nitric oxide and PGE2. Consistent with these findings, BITC inhibited the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 proteins and their corresponding mRNAs. BITC inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and the degradation of the inhibitor of κBα, translocation of p65 into the nucleus, and the DNA binding activity and transcriptional activity of NFκB. Moreover, the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt was suppressed by BITC. BITC also inhibited ear edema formation and the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in mouse skin treated with TPA. We demonstrate that BITC is a potent anti-inflammatory agent, and the anti-inflammatory properties of BITC may result from the downregulation of NFκB signaling.
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This research was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD; KRF-2008-314-F00069) and a grant from the SRC program of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) (2009-0063409). In addition, the authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. All authors contributed to the preparation of the manuscript.
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Lee, Y.M., Seon, M.R., Cho, H.J. et al. Benzyl isothiocyanate exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages and in mouse skin. J Mol Med 87, 1251 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-009-0532-6
- Inducible nitric oxide synthase
- Raw 264.7 cells