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Mikrobiom und Autoimmunität

The microbiome and autoimmunity

Zusammenfassung

Das Mikrobiom stellt eine wesentliche funktionelle Komponente an der Grenzfläche zwischen Umwelt und Organismus dar. Störungen der Integrität und des mikrobiellen Gleichgewichts beeinflussen verschiedene gesundheitsrelevante Prozesse, darunter auch die Autoimmunität. In der Darmschleimhaut findet eine besonders aktive Interaktion zwischen Wirt und Mikroorganismen statt. Eine zunehmende Menge wissenschaftlicher Daten hilft dabei zu verstehen, wie die Zusammensetzung und die Funktionalität des Mikrobioms die intestinale Barrierefunktion und darüber hinaus pro- und antiinflammatorische Immunmechanismen an auch weiter entfernten Organen regulieren. Neben dem intestinalen Mikrobiom hat auch das lokale Mikrobiom der Haut eine funktionelle Bedeutung für verschiedene Krankheitsprozesse. Dieser Übersichtsbeitrag geht auf die Bedeutung des Mikrobioms für das lokale und systemische Immunsystem ein. Dabei wird auch beschrieben, wie eine gestörte Interaktion zwischen Mikrobiom und Wirt die Entstehung und Progression von Autoimmunerkrankungen beeinflusst. Das Verständnis dieser Zusammenhänge wird neue diagnostische und therapeutische Ansätze erschließen.

Abstract

An abundant and diverse set of commensal microbial communities covers the body’s surfaces, collectively so-called microbiome. It has a functional impact on various immune processes and modulates many health-related processes, including autoimmunity. An active site of microorganism–host interplay is the intestinal mucosa. Growing evidence has helped us to learn how a specific microbiota composition and its functionality determine the intestinal barrier function and, furthermore, modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune mechanisms in remote organs. In addition, the microbial composition of the skin is important for the functionality of the skin barrier and autoimmune skin diseases. Here, we review the importance of the microbiome for the local and systemic immune system and how a disturbed microbiome–host interaction can affect the development and progression of autoimmune diseases. Understanding these associations will help to unravel new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for those diseases.

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Correspondence to T. Schröder.

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Interessenkonflikt

T. Schröder und S. Ibrahim geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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H. Lehnert, Lübeck

J. Mössner, Leipzig

B. Salzberger, Regensburg

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Schröder, T., Ibrahim, S. Mikrobiom und Autoimmunität. Internist 58, 449–455 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00108-017-0221-4

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Rheumatoide Arthritis
  • Multiple Sklerose
  • Diabetes mellitus Typ 1
  • Systemischer Lupus erythematodes
  • Autoimmune Hauterkrankungen

Keywords

  • Arthritis, rheumatoid
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Diabetes mellitus, type 1
  • Lupus erythematosus, systemic
  • Autoimmune diseases, skin