Der Internist

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 315–328 | Cite as

Refluxösophagitis

Weiterbildung · Zertifizierte Fortbildung

Zusammenfassung

Die gastroösophageale Refluxkrankheit (GERD) ist in den industrialisierten Ländern weit verbreitet. Etwa 15–25% der Bevölkerung leiden an den typischen Symptomen der Refluxkrankheit wie Sodbrennen und Regurgitation. Zurzeit sind die medikamentöse Therapie mit Protonenpumpeninhibitoren (PPI) und die laparoskopische Antirefluxchirurgie die etablierten Behandlungsverfahren. Die PPI-Therapie ist der Goldstandard sowohl bei akuten Beschwerden als auch in der Langzeitbehandlung und der On-demand-Therapie der GERD. Da die PPI jedoch die Antirefluxbarriere nicht wiederherstellen, ist meist eine lebenslange Behandlung notwendig. Unter diesem Blickwinkel und den potenziellen Risiken einer Antirefluxoperation haben sich in den letzten Jahren mehrere endoskopische Antirefluxverfahren entwickelt, die eventuell eine mögliche 3. Behandlungsoption darstellen. Bisher fehlen jedoch objektive Daten zur Auswahl geeigneter Patienten und zur Langzeiteffizienz dieser Methoden.

Schlüsselwörter

Refluxösophagitis Gastroösophageale Refluxkrankheit Endoskopie Antirefluxoperation Protonenpumpeninhibitoren 

Reflux esophagitis

Abstract

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the industrialized countries. Approximately 15–25% of adults suffer from reflux symptoms, characterized mainly by heartburn and/or regurgitation. Currently, antisecretory medication with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or antireflux surgery are the established options for GERD-treatment. PPI are the therapeutic gold standard in acute, long-term or on-demand therapy of GERD. Since PPI do not restore the antireflux barrier but merely suppress acid secretion a life-long tablet adherence is required in most cases. In view of limitations of PPI and the potential risks of laparoscopic surgery, several endoscopic antireflux techniques were developed and may evolve as a valuable third option. However, so far objective long-term data are lacking for choosing the appropriate patient who will benefit most from endoluminal antireflux therapy.

Keywords

Reflux esophagitis Gastroesophageal reflux disease Antisecretory medication Endoscopy Proton pump inhibitors 

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Mittal RK, Holloway RH, Penagini R, Blackshaw LA, Dent J (1995) Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Gastroenterology 109: 601–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dent J (1998) Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Digestion 59: 433–445Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hirsch DP, Tytgat GN, Boeckxstaens GE (2002) Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations—a pharmacological target for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16: 17–26Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Penagini R, Carmagnola S, Cantu P (2002) Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease—pathophysiological issues of clinical relevance. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16 Suppl 4: 65–71Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kahrilas PJ, Lin S, Chen J, Manka M (1999) The effect of hiatus hernia on gastro-oesophageal junction pressure. Gut 44: 476–482Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones MP, Sloan SS, Rabine JC, Ebert CC, Huang CF, Kahrilas PJ (2001) Hiatal hernia size is the dominant determinant of esophagitis presence and severity in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 96: 1711–1717Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mittal RK, Lange RC, McCallum RW (1987) Identification and mechanism of delayed esophageal acid clearance in subjects with hiatus hernia. Gastroenterology 92: 130–135Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sloan S, Kahrilas PJ (1991) Impairment of esophageal emptying with hiatal hernia. Gastroenterology 100: 596–605Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Waring JP, Legrand J, Chinichian A, Sanowski RA (1990) Duodenogastric reflux in patients with Barrett’s esophagus. Dig Dis Sci 35: 759–762Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pera M, Trastek VF, Pairolero PC, Cardesa A, Allen MS, Deschamps C (1993) Barrett’s disease: pathophysiology of metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg 56: 1191–1197Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Romero Y, Cameron AJ, Locke GR et al. (1997) Familial aggregation of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology 113: 1449–1456Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Romero Y, Cameron AJ, Schaid DJ et al. (2002) Barrett’s esophagus: prevalence in symptomatic relatives. Am J Gastroenterol 97: 1127–1132Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cameron AJ, Lagergren J, Henriksson C, Nyren O, Locke GR, Pedersen NL (2002) Gastroesophageal reflux disease in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Gastroenterology 122: 55–59Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    el-Serag HB, Sonnenberg A (1997) Associations between different forms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut 41: 594–599Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lieberman DA, Oehlke M, Helfand M (1997) Risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus in community-based practice. GORGE consortium. Gastroenterology Outcomes Research Group in Endoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol 92: 1293–1297Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fass R, Ofman JJ (2002) Gastroesophageal reflux disease—should we adopt a new conceptual framework? Am J Gastroenterol 97: 1901–1909Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Quigley EM (2003) New developments in the pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD): implications for patient management. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17 [Suppl 2]: 43–51Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pace F, Porro GB (2004) Gastroesophageal reflux disease: a typical spectrum disease (a new conceptual framework is not needed). Am J Gastroenterol 99: 946–949Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Johansson S, Wallander MA, Ruigomez A, Garcia Rodriguez LA (2003) Is there any association between myocardial infarction, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and acid-suppressing drugs? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18: 973–978Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klauser AG, Schindlbeck NE, Muller-Lissner SA (1990) Symptoms in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Lancet 335: 205–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richter JE (1997) Extraesophageal presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease: the case for aggressive diagnosis and treatment. Cleve Clin J Med 64: 37–45Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Locke GR, Talley NJ, Fett SL, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ (1997) Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gastroenterology 112: 1448–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rasche K, Sanner B, Schafer T, May B (1997) Sleep, breathing and gastroesophageal reflux. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 122: 659–663Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rosanowski F, Rabenstein T, Hahn EG, Eysholdt U (2001) Reflux-associated diseases of the otorhinolaryngology tract. Laryngorhinootologie 80: 487–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dent J, Brun J, Fendrick AM et al. (1999) An evidence-based appraisal of reflux disease management—the Genval Workshop Report. Gut 44: 1S–16Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hotz J, Madisch A, Classen M, Malfertheiner P, Rosch W (2000) International consensus on reflux disease of the esophagus. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 125: 1308–1312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Younes Z, Johnson DA (1999) Diagnostic evaluation in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 28: 809–830Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schenk BE, Kuipers EJ, Klinkenberg-Knol EC et al. (1997) Omeprazole as a diagnostic tool in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 92: 1997–2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Numans ME, Lau J, de Wit NJ, Bonis PA (2004) Short-term treatment with proton-pump inhibitors as a test for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test characteristics. Ann Intern Med 140: 518–527Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mattioli S, Felice V, Pilotti V, Bacchi ML, Pastina M, Gozzetti G (1992) Indications for 24-hour gastric pH monitoring with single and multiple probes in clinical research and practice. Dig Dis Sci 37: 1793–1801Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bollschweiler E, Feussner H, Holscher AH, Siewert JR (1993) pH monitoring: the gold standard in detection of gastrointestinal reflux disease? Dysphagia 8: 118–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ott DJ, Ledbetter MS, Koufman JA, Chen MY (1994) Globus pharyngeus: radiographic evaluation and 24-hour pH monitoring of the pharynx and esophagus in 22 patients. Radiology 191: 95–97Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Festen HP, Jansen JB et al. (1994) Long-term treatment with omeprazole for refractory reflux esophagitis: efficacy and safety. Ann Intern Med 121: 161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vigneri S, Termini R, Leandro G et al. (1995) A comparison of five maintenance therapies for reflux esophagitis. N Engl J Med 333: 1106–1110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Spechler SJ, Lee E, Ahnen D et al. (2001) Long-term outcome of medical and surgical therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 285: 2331–1338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lundell L (2002) Laparoscopic fundoplication is the treatment of choice for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut 51: 468–471Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    DeVault KR, Castell DO (1999) Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol. 94: 1434–1442Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meining A, Classen M (2000) The role of diet and lifestyle measures in the pathogenesis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 95: 2692–2697Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jordan A, Stein J (2003) Ernährung bei Krankheiten des Gastrointestinaltraktes. In: Stein J, Jauch K (Hrsg) Klinische Ernährung und Infusionstherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 583–626Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harvey RF, Gordon PC, Hadley N et al. (1987) Effects of sleeping with the bed-head raised and of ranitidine in patients with severe peptic oesophagitis. Lancet 2: 1200–1203Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pehl C, Pfeiffer A, Waizenhoefer A, Wendl B, Schepp W (2001) Effect of caloric density of a meal on lower oesophageal sphincter motility and gastro-oesophageal reflux in healthy subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15: 233–239Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Armstrong D, Bennett JR, Blum AL et al. (1996) The endoscopic assessment of esophagitis: a progress report on observer agreement. Gastroenterology 111: 85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pehl C, Pfeiffer A, Wendl B, Kaess H (1997) The effect of decaffeination of coffee on gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 11: 483–486Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boekema PJ, Samsom M, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Smout AJ (1999) Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 230: 35–39Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boekema PJ, Lo B, Samsom M, Akkermans LM, Smout AJ (2000) The effect of coffee on gastric emptying and oro-caecal transit time. Eur J Clin Invest 30: 129–134Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Penagini R, Mangano M, Bianchi PA (1998) Effect of increasing the fat content but not the energy load of a meal on gastro-oesophageal reflux and lower oesophageal sphincter motor function. Gut 42: 330–333Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Murphy DW, Castell DO (1988) Chocolate and heartburn: evidence of increased esophageal acid exposure after chocolate ingestion. Am J Gastroenterol 83: 633–636Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Avidan B, Sonnenberg A, Schnell TG, Sontag SJ (2001) Walking and chewing reduce postprandial acid reflux. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15: 151–155Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kahrilas PJ (1992) Cigarette smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dig Dis 10: 61–71Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pehl C, Pfeiffer A, Wendl B, Nagy I, Kaess H (1997) Effect of smoking on the results of esophageal pH measurement in clinical routine. J Clin Gastroenterol 25: 503–506Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nilsson M, Johnsen R, Ye W, Hveem K, Lagergren J (2004) Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Gut 53: 1730–1735Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kjellin A, Ramel S, Rossner S, Thor K (1996) Gastroesophageal reflux in obese patients is not reduced by weight reduction. Scand J Gastroenterol 31: 1047–1051Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wilson LJ, Ma W, Hirschowitz BI (1999) Association of obesity with hiatal hernia and esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol 94: 2840–2844Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Nyren O (2000) No relation between body mass and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a Swedish population based study. Gut 47: 26–29Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chiba N, De Gara C, Wilkinson J, Hunt R (1997) Speed of healing and symptom relief in grade II to IV gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 112: 1798–1810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    van Pinxteren B, Numans ME, Bonis PA, Lau J (2001) Short-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists and prokinetics for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms and endoscopy negative reflux disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: CD002095Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Nelis F, Dent J et al. (2000) Long-term omeprazole treatment in resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease: efficacy, safety, and influence on gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology 118: 661–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moayyedi P (2001) Counting the cost of proton pump inhibitors. Gut 49: 462–463Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Revicki DA, Zodet MW, Joshua-Gotlib S, Levine D, Crawley JA (2003) Health-related quality of life improves with treatment-related GERD symptom resolution after adjusting for baseline severity. Health Qual Life Outcomes 1: 73Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lind T, Havelund T, Lundell L et al. (1999) On demand therapy with omeprazole for the long-term management of patients with heartburn without oesophagitis—a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13: 907–914Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Talley NJ, Fullerton S, Junghard O, Wiklund I (2001) Quality of life in patients with endoscopy-negative heartburn: reliability and sensitivity of disease-specific instruments. Am J Gastroenterol 96: 1998–2004Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Holloway RH, Dent J, Narielvala F, Mackinnon AM (1996) Relation between oesophageal acid exposure and healing of oesophagitis with omeprazole in patients with severe reflux oesophagitis. Gut 38: 649–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Edwards SJ, Lind T, Lundell L (2001) Systematic review of proton pump inhibitors for the acute treatment of reflux oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15: 1729–1736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Caro JJ, Salas M, Ward A (2001) Healing and relapse rates in gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with the newer proton-pump inhibitors lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and pantoprazole compared with omeprazole, ranitidine, and placebo: evidence from randomized clinical trials. Clin Ther 23: 998–1017CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vakil N, Fennerty MB (2003) Direct comparative trials of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18: 559–568Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Klok RM, Postma MJ, van Hout BA, Brouwers JR (2003) Meta-analysis: comparing the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in short-term use. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17: 1237–1245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Richter JE, Kahrilas PJ, Johanson J et al. (2001) Efficacy and safety of esomeprazole compared with omeprazole in GERD patients with erosive esophagitis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol 96: 656–665CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Castell DO, Kahrilas PJ, Richter JE et al. (2002) Esomeprazole (40 mg) compared with lansoprazole (30 mg) in the treatment of erosive esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol 97: 575–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Scholten T, Gatz G, Hole U (2003) Once-daily pantoprazole 40 mg and esomeprazole 40 mg have equivalent overall efficacy in relieving GERD-related symptoms. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18: 587–594Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gillessen A, Beil W, Modlin IM, Gatz G, Hole U (2004) 40 mg pantoprazole and 40 mg esomeprazole are equivalent in the healing of esophageal lesions and relief from gastroesophageal reflux disease-related symptoms. J Clin Gastroenterol 38: 332–340Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kahrilas PJ, Falk GW, Johnson DA et al. (2000) Esomeprazole improves healing and symptom resolution as compared with omeprazole in reflux oesophagitis patients: a randomized controlled trial. The Esomeprazole Study Investigators. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14: 1249–1258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hetzel DJ, Dent J, Reed WD et al. (1988) Healing and relapse of severe peptic esophagitis after treatment with omeprazole. Gastroenterology 95: 903–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dent J, Yeomans ND, Mackinnon M et al. (1994) Omeprazole v ranitidine for prevention of relapse in reflux oesophagitis. A controlled double blind trial of their efficacy and safety. Gut 35: 590–598Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johnson DA, Benjamin SB, Vakil NB et al. (2001) Esomeprazole once daily for 6 months is effective therapy for maintaining healed erosive esophagitis and for controlling gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Am J Gastroenterol 96: 27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Talley NJ, Lauritsen K, Tunturi-Hihnala H et al. (2001) Esomeprazole 20 mg maintains symptom control in endoscopy-negative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a controlled trial of ‚on-demand‘ therapy for 6 months. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15: 347–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ofman JJ, Dorn GH, Fennerty MB, Fass R (2002) The clinical and economic impact of competing management strategies for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16: 261–273Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Manifold DK, Marshall RE, Anggiansah A, Owen WJ (2000) Effect of omeprazole on antral duodenogastric reflux in Barrett oesophagus. Scand J Gastroenterol 35: 796–801Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Field SK, Sutherland LR (1998) Does medical antireflux therapy improve asthma in asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux? A critical review of the literature. Chest 114: 275–283Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martin RM, Dunn NR, Freemantle S, Shakir S (2000) The rates of common adverse events reported during treatment with proton pump inhibitors used in general practice in England: cohort studies. Br J Clin Pharmacol 50: 366–372Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Labenz J, Petersen KU, Rosch W, Koelz HR (2003) A summary of Food and Drug Administration-reported adverse events and drug interactions occurring during therapy with omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17: 1015–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McCarthy DM, McLaughlin TP, Griffis DL, Yazdani C (2003) Impact of cotherapy with some proton pump inhibitors on medical claims among HMO patients already using other common drugs also cleared by cytochrome P450. Am J Ther 10: 330–340Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Klotz U, Beil W, Gleiter C et al. (2003) Drug interactions. Mechanisms and clinical relevance. Internist (Berl) 44: 1444–1449Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Peters FT, Ganesh S, Kuipers EJ et al. (1999) Endoscopic regression of Barrett’s oesophagus during omeprazole treatment; a randomised double blind study. Gut 45: 489–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sharma P, Sampliner RE, Camargo E (1997) Normalization of esophageal pH with high-dose proton pump inhibitor therapy does not result in regression of Barrett’s esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol 92: 582–585Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    May A, Gossner L, Pech O et al. (2002) Local endoscopic therapy for intraepithelial high-grade neoplasia and early adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s oesophagus: acute-phase and intermediate results of a new treatment approach. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14: 1085–1091Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pech O, Gossner L, May A, Vieth M, Stolte M, Ell C (2004) Endoscopic resection of superficial esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas: Western experience. Am J Gastroenterol 99: 1226–1232Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    May A, Gunter E, Roth F et al. (2004) Accuracy of staging in early oesophageal cancer using high resolution endoscopy and high resolution endosonography: a comparative, prospective, and blinded trial. Gut 53: 634–640Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jaspersen D, Diehl KL, Schoeppner H, Geyer P, Martens E (1998) A comparison of omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole in the maintenance treatment of severe reflux oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 12: 49–52Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Labenz J, Malfertheiner P (1997) Helicobacter pylori--when and how do gastroenterologists treat themselves? A clinical and practical survey. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 122: 637–642Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Peters FT, Kuipers EJ, Ganesh S et al. (1999) The influence of Helicobacter pylori on oesophageal acid exposure in GERD during acid suppressive therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13: 921–926Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kuipers EJ, Lundell L, Klinkenberg-Knol EC et al. (1996) Atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux esophagitis treated with omeprazole or fundoplication. N Engl J Med 334: 1018–1022CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schenk BE, Kuipers EJ, Nelis GF et al. (2000) Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis during omeprazole therapy. Gut 46: 615–621Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Laine S, Rantala A, Gullichsen R, Ovaska J (1997) Laparoscopic vs conventional Nissen fundoplication. A prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc 11: 441–444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bais JE, Bartelsman JF, Bonjer HJ et al. (2000) Laparoscopic or conventional Nissen fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: randomised clinical trial. The Netherlands Antireflux Surgery Study Group. Lancet 355: 170–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lafullarde T, Watson DI, Jamieson GG, Myers JC, Game PA, Devitt PG (2001) Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: five-year results and beyond. Arch Surg 136: 180–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fuchs KH, Feussner H, Bonavina L, Collard JM, Coosemans W (1997) Current status and trends in laparoscopic antireflux surgery: results of a consensus meeting. The European Study Group for Antireflux Surgery (ESGARS). Endoscopy 29: 298–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stein HJ, Feussner H, Siewert JR (1998) Indications for antireflux surgery of the esophagus. Chirurg 69: 132–140Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Glaser K, Wetscher GJ, Klingler A et al. (2000) Selection of patients for laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Dig Dis 18: 129–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mattioli S, Lugaresi ML, Pierluigi M, Di Simone MP, D’Ovidio F (2003) Indications for anti-reflux surgery in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17 [Suppl 2]: 60–67Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lundell L, Miettinen P, Myrvold HE et al. (2001) Continued (5-year) followup of a randomized clinical study comparing antireflux surgery and omeprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Am Coll Surg 192: 172–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gotley DC, Smithers BM, Rhodes M, Menzies B, Branicki FJ, Nathanson L (1996) Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication—200 consecutive cases. Gut 38: 487–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Perdikis G, Hinder RA, Lund RJ, Raiser F, Katada N (1997) Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication: where do we stand? Surg Laparosc Endosc 7: 17–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zaninotto G, Molena D, Ancona E (2000) A prospective multicenter study on laparoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Italy: type of surgery, conversions, complications, and early results. Study Group for the Laparoscopic Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease of the Italian Society of Endoscopic Surgery (SICE). Surg Endosc 14: 282–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bammer T, Hinder RA, Klaus A, Libbey JS, Napoliello DA, Rodriquez JA (2002) Safety and long-term outcome of laparoscopic antireflux surgery in patients in their eighties and older. Surg Endosc 16: 40–42Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Heudebert GR, Marks R, Wilcox CM, Centor RM (1997) Choice of long-term strategy for the management of patients with severe esophagitis: a cost-utility analysis. Gastroenterology 112: 1078–1086Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Myrvold HE, Lundell L, Miettinen P et al. (2001) The cost of long term therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a randomised trial comparing omeprazole and open antireflux surgery. Gut 49: 488–494Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chadalavada R, Lin E, Swafford V, Sedghi S, Smith CD (2004) Comparative results of endoluminal gastroplasty and laparoscopic antireflux surgery for the treatment of GERD. Surg Endosc 18: 261–265Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tam WC, Schoeman MN, Zhang Q et al. (2003) Delivery of radiofrequency energy to the lower oesophageal sphincter and gastric cardia inhibits transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations and gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Gut 52: 479–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tam WC, Holloway RH, Dent J, Rigda R, Schoeman MN (2004) Impact of endoscopic suturing of the gastroesophageal junction on lower esophageal sphincter function and gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol 99: 195–202Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Corley DA, Katz P, Wo JM et al. (2003) Improvement of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms after radiofrequency energy: a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 125: 668–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rothstein RI, Hynes ML, Grove MR, Pohl H (2004) Endoscopic Gastric Plication (EndoCinch) for GERD: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Blinded, Single-Center Study. Gastrointest Endosc 59: AB111–111Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IIUniversität Leipzig
  2. 2.Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IIUniversitätLeipzig

Personalised recommendations