Skip to main content
Log in

Seismic protection technologies for timber structures: a review

  • Original
  • Published:
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Timber structures traditionally provided satisfactory seismic performance due to multiple known features. However, the consequences of the last major earthquakes have clearly proofed that seismic timber design must further improve. In addition, nowadays timber structures target taller heights and so they face much larger seismic demands. All this together has made seismic protection technologies (SPTs) to emerge as a hotspot in timber engineering research, devoting more than 80 publications only in the last decade. All types of SPTs share the common principle that, rather than increase the lateral resistance of a structure, they are focused on reducing the seismic demands and such reduction has been reported as large as 90% and above. Although many distinct devices and techniques are intended to this end, SPTs applied to timber structures may be grouped into supplemental damping, seismic isolation, and rocking systems. Apart from the copious scientific production in the field, knowledge has been published in very distinct niches, which makes a linkage of state-of-the-art very difficult, as well as an analysis of current challenges and limitations. This review attempts to provide so after explaining first the basic principles of these technologies so that they are comprehensible for a timber engineer or researcher not necessarily familiar with all structural dynamics’ underlying concepts. An outlook for future research trends is expected towards cost-effectiveness, rate-effects, engagement of devices, and design guidelines which may expand these technologies bringing timber structures into higher levels of seismic performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Adapted from a Shinde et al. (2008), b López-Almansa et al. (2015), c Li et al. (2017), d Kasai et al. (2005)

Fig. 9

Adapted from a Sakamoto et al. (1990), b Myslimaj et al. (2002), c, d Iiba et al. (2004)

Fig. 10

Adapted from a Jampole et al. (2016) and b Bolvardi et al. (2018)

Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Akbas T, Sause R, Ricles JM et al (2017) Analytical and experimental lateral-load response of self-centering posttensioned CLT walls. J Struct Eng 143:04017019. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ANSI/AWC (2015) Special design provisions for wind and seismic. American Wood Council, Leesburg

    Google Scholar 

  • ASCE 7–10 (2010) Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston

    Google Scholar 

  • Awaludin A, Sasaki Y, Oikawa A et al (2007) Friction damping of pre-stressed timber joints. Grad Sch Agric Hokkaido Univ Sapporo, Sapporo

  • Bahmani P, van de Lindt JW, Gershfeld M et al (2014) Experimental seismic behavior of a full-scale four-story soft-story wood-frame building with retrofits. I: building design, retrofit methodology, and numerical validation. J Struct Eng 142:14. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baquero JS, Almazán JL, Tapia NF (2016) Amplification system for concentrated and distributed energy dissipation devices. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 45:935–956. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2692

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blomgren H-E, Pei S, Powers J et al (2018) Cross-laminated timber rocking wall with replaceable fuses: validation through full-scale shake table testing. In: World conference on timber engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Bolvardi V, Pei S, van de Lindt JW, Dolan JD (2018) Direct displacement design of tall cross laminated timber platform buildings with inter-story isolation. Eng Struct 167:740–749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.09.054

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandner R et al (2018) Properties, testing and design of cross laminated timber: a state-of-the-art report by COST action FP1402 / WG 2. Schaker Verlag, Aachen

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown A, Lester J, Pampanin S, Pietra D (2012) Pres-Lam in practice—a damage-limiting rebuild project. In: SESOC Conference

  • Casagrande D, Grossi P, Tomasi R (2016) Shake table tests on a full-scale timber-frame building with gypsum fibre boards. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 74:425–442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-016-1013-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ceccotti A, Sandhaas C, Okabe M et al (2013) SOFIE project—3D shaking table test on a seven-storey full-scale cross-laminated timber building. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 42:2003–2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chopra AK (2016) Dynamics of structures: theory and applications to earthquake engineering, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  • Christopoulos C, Filiatrault A, Bertero VV (2006) Principles of passive supplemental damping and seismic isolation. IUSS Press, Pavia

    Google Scholar 

  • Christovasilis IP, Filiatrault A, Wanitkorkul A (2009) Seismic testing of a full-scale two-story light-frame wood building: NEESWood benchmark test. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

  • Davies M, Fragiacomo M (2011) Long-term behavior of prestressed LVL members. I: experimental tests. J Struct Eng 137:1553–1561. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delfosse GC (1982) Wood framed individual houses on seismic isolators. In: International Conf. on natural rubber for earthquake protection of buildings and vibration isolation. pp 104–111

  • Devereux CP, Holden TJ, Buchanan AH, Pampanin S (2011) NMIT Arts and media building—damage mitigation using post-tensioned timber walls. In: Pacific conference on earthquake engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 8

  • Dinehart DW, Lewicki DE (2001) Viscoelastic material as a seismic protection system for wood-framed buildings. In: 2001 Structures congress and exposition. Washington, D.C., USA, p 6

  • Dinehart DW, Shenton HW (1998) Comparison of the response of timber shear walls with and without passive dampers. In: Structural engineering worldwide. San Francisco, USA

  • Dinehart DW, Shenton HW, Elliott TE (1999) The dynamic response of wood-frame shear walls with viscoelastic dampers. Earthq Spectra 15:67–86. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1586029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Du Y (2003) The development and use of a novel finite element for the evaluation of embedded fluid dampers within light-frame timber structures with seismic loading. Washington State University, Washington

  • Dunbar A, Pampanin S, Palermo A, Buchanan AH (2013) Seismic design of core-walls for multi-storey timber buildings. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Wellington, New Zealand

  • Dunbar A, Moroder D, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2014) Timber core-walls for lateral load resistance of multi-storey timber buildings. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Quebec, Canada

  • Dutil DA, Symans MD (2004) Experimental investigation of seismic behavior of light-framed wood shear walls with supplemental energy dissipation. In: 13th World Conference on earthquake engineering. Vancouver, Canada, p 15

  • Filiatrault A (1990) Analytical predictions of the seismic response of friction damped timber shear walls. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 19:259–273. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290190209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Filiatrault A, Fischer D, Folz B, Uang C-M (2002) Seismic testing of two-story woodframe house: influence of wall finish materials. J Struct Eng 128:1337–1345. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:10(1337)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Filiatrault A, Wanitkorkul A, Christovasilis IP et al (2007) Experimental seismic performance evaluation of a full-scale woodframe building. In: 2007 structures congress, ASCE. Long Beach, USA, p 8

    Google Scholar 

  • Filiatrault A, Christovasilis IP, Wanitkorkul A, van de Lindt JW (2010) Experimental seismic response of a full-scale light-frame wood building. J Struct Eng 136:246–254. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flatscher G, Schickhofer G (2015) Shaking-table test of a cross-laminated timber structure. Proc Inst Civ Eng Struct Build 168:878–888. https://doi.org/10.1680/stbu.13.00086

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fragiacomo M, Davies M (2011) Long-term behavior of prestressed LVL members. II: analytical approach. J Struct Eng 137:1562–1572. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000410

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ganey R (2015) Seismic design and testing of rocking cross laminated timber walls. University of Washington, Washington

  • Gavric I, Fragiacomo M, Ceccotti A (2015a) Cyclic behaviour of typical metal connectors for cross-laminated (CLT) structures. Mater Struct Constr 48:1841–1857. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-014-0278-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gavric I, Fragiacomo M, Ceccotti A (2015b) Cyclic behavior of typical screwed connections for cross-laminated (CLT) structures. Eur J Wood Wood Prod 73:179–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-014-0877-6

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Granello G, Giorgini S, Palermo A et al (2017) Long-term behavior of LVL posttensioned timber beams. J Struct Eng 143:9. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001907

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Granello G, Leyder C, Palermo A et al (2018) Design approach to predict post-tensioning losses in post-tensioned timber frames. J Struct Eng 144:04018115. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grossi P, Sartori T, Tomasi R (2015) Tests on timber frame walls under in-plane forces: part 2. Proc Inst Civ Eng Struct Build 168:840–852

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashemi A, Masoudnia R, Quenneville P (2016) Seismic performance of hybrid self-centring steel-timber rocking core walls with slip friction connections. J Constr Steel Res 126:201–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2016.07.022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashemi A, Zarnani P, Masoudnia R, Quenneville P (2017) Seismic resistant rocking coupled walls with innovative Resilient Slip Friction (RSF) joints. J Constr Steel Res 129:215–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2016.11.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashemi A, Masoudnia R, Zarnani P, Quenneville P (2018a) Seismic resilient Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) platform structures using resilient Slip Friction Joints (RSFJs). In: World conference on timber engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Hashemi A, Zarnani P, Quenneville P (2018b) Development of resilient seismic solutions for timber structures using the Resilient Slip Friction Joint (RSFJ) technology. In: World conference on timber engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Higgins C (2001) Hysteretic dampers for wood frame shear walls. In: 2001 Structures congress and exposition, ASCE. D.C., USA

    Google Scholar 

  • Holden T, Devereux C, Haydon S et al (2016) NMIT arts and media building—innovative structural design of a three storey post-tensioned timber building. Case Stud Struct Eng 6:76–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csse.2016.06.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hossain A, Danzig I, Tannert T (2016) Cross-laminated timber shear connections with double-angled self-tapping screw assemblies. J Struct Eng 142:04016099. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001572

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hummel J (2017) Displacement-based seismic design for multi-storey cross laminated timber buildings (Vol. 8). PhD Dissertation. Kassel University Press GmbH, Kassel, Germany

  • Iiba M, Midorikawa M, Yamanouchi H et al (2000) Shaking table tests on performance of isolators for houses subjected to three-dimensional earthquake motions. In: 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 8

  • Iiba M, Midorikawa M, Yamanouchi Y et al (2001) Construction of a base-isolated house for observation of isolation effects during earthquake and wind. In: Joint meeting of the US-Japan cooperative program in natural resources panel on wind and seismic effects. D.C., USA, pp 203–211

    Google Scholar 

  • Iiba M, Midorikawa M, Hamada H et al (2004) Seismic safety evaluation of base-isolated houses with rubber bearing. In: 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Vancouver, Canada, p 12

  • Iqbal A (2011) Seismic response and design of subassemblies for multi-storey prestressed timber buildings. University of Canterbury

  • Iqbal A, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH, Palermo A (2007) Improved seismic performance of LVL post-tensioned walls coupled with UFP devices. In: 8th Pacific Conference on Earthquake engineering. Singapore

  • Iqbal A, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2008) Seismic behaviour of prestressed timber columns under bi-directional loading. In: 10th World Conference on Timber Engineering. Miyazaki, Japan, pp 1810–1817

  • Iqbal A, Pampanin S, Palermo A, Buchanan AH (2010) Seismic Performance of Full-scale Posttensioned Timber Beam-column Joints. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Riva del Garda, Italy, pp 383–405

  • Iqbal A, Pampanin S, Fragiacomo M et al (2012) Seismic response of post-tensioned LVL walls coupled with plywood sheets. In: World conference on timber engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 6

  • Izzi M, Casagrande D, Bezzi S et al (2018a) Seismic behaviour of Cross-Laminated Timber structures: a state-of-the-art review. Eng Struct 170:42–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.05.060

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Izzi M, Polastri A, Fragiacomo M (2018b) Investigating the hysteretic behavior of cross-laminated timber wall systems due to connections. J Struct Eng 144:04018035. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jahnel L, Cole E (2017) Design approach for friction spring dampers in steel framed buildings. Experiences from Christchurch/NZ. In: 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Santiago, Chile

  • Jampole EA, Swensen S, Fell B et al (2014) Dynamic testing of a low-cost sliding isolation system for light-frame residential structures. In: Tenth US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Anchorage, USA, pp 21–25

  • Jampole EA, Deierlein GG, Miranda E et al (2016) Full-scale dynamic testing of a sliding seismically isolated unibody house. Earthq Spectra 32:2245–2270. https://doi.org/10.1193/010616EQS003M

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jampole E, Deierlein GG, Miranda E et al (2017) An economic sliding isolation system for light frame. In: 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Santiago, Chile, p 12

  • Jayamon JR, Line P, Charney FA (2018) State-of-the-art review on damping in wood-frame shear wall structures. J Struct Eng 144:03118003. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0002212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jorissen A, Fragiacomo M (2011) General notes on ductility in timber structures. Eng Struct 33(11):2987–2997

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jünemann R, de la Llera JC, Besa J, Almazán JL (2009) Three-dimensional behavior of a spherical self-centering precast prestressed pile isolator. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 38:541–564. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.901

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karacabeyli E, Lum C (2014) Technical guide for the design and construction of tall wood buildings in Canada. FPInnovations Pointe-Claire, QC

    Google Scholar 

  • Kasai K, Sakata H, Wada A, Miyashita T (2005) Dynamic behavior of a wood frame with shear link passive control mechanism involving K-brace. J Struct Constr Eng 70:51–59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kasal B, Guindos P, Polocoser T et al (2014) Heavy laminated timber frames with rigid three-dimensional beam-to-column connections. J Perform Constr Facil 28:A4014014. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kasal B, Polocoser T, Guindos P et al (2015) High-Performance Composite-Reinforced Earthquake Resistant Buildings with Self-Aligning Capabilities. In: Taucer F, Apostolska R (eds) Experimental Research in Earthquake Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 359–372

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Kawai N, Araki Y, Koshihara M, Isoda H (2006) Seismic dampers for rehabilitating vulnerable Japanese wood houses. In: World Conference on timber engineering. Portland, USA

  • Kelly JM (2002) Seismic isolation systems for developing countries. Earthq Spectra 18:385–406. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1503339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kovacs MA, Wiebe L (2017) Controlled rocking CLT walls for buildings in regions of moderate seismicity: design procedure and numerical collapse assessment. J Earthq Eng 00:1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2017.1326421

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurama YC (2000) Seismic design of unbonded post-tensioned precast concrete walls with supplemental viscous damping. ACI Struct J 97:648–658

    Google Scholar 

  • Kurama YC, Pessiki S, Sause R, Lu L-W (1999) Seismic behavior and design of unbonded post-tensioned precast concrete walls. PCI J 44:72–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leyder C, Chatzi E, Frangi A (2015a) Structural health monitoring of an innovative timber building. In: International conference on performance-based and life-cycle structural engineering. Queensland, Australia, pp 1383–1392

  • Leyder C, Wanninger F, Frangi A, Chatzi E (2015b) Dynamic response of an innovative hybrid structure in hardwood. In: Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers—construction materials. pp 132–143

  • Li Z, Dong H, Wang X, He M (2017) Experimental and numerical investigations into seismic performance of timber-steel hybrid structure with supplemental dampers. Eng Struct 151:33–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.08.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu H, Van De Lindt JW, Symans MD (2009) Performance-based evaluation of base isolated light-frame wood structures. NEES Res 8

  • Loo WY, Quenneville P, Chouw N (2012a) A numerical study of the seismic behaviour of timber shear walls with slip-friction connectors. Eng Struct 34:233–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2011.09.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loo WY, Quenneville P, Chouw N (2012b) Design and numerical verification of a multi-storey timber shear wall with slip-friction conectors. In: World conference on timber engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 9

  • Loo WY, Kun C, Quenneville P, Chouw N (2014) Experimental testing of a rocking timber shear wall with slip-friction connectors. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 43:1621–1639. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loo WY, Quenneville P, Chouw N (2016) Rocking timber structure with slip-friction connectors conceptualized as a plastically deformable hinge within a multistory shear wall. J Struct Eng 142:E4015010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • López-Almansa F, Segués E, Cantalapiedra IR (2015) A new steel framing system for seismic protection of timber platform frame buildings. Implementation with hysteretic energy dissipators. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 44:1181–1202. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2507

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ma S (2016) Numerical study of pin-supported cross-laminated timber (CLT) shear wall system equipped with low-yield steel dampers. University of British Columbia, Columbia

  • Matsuda K, Sakata H, Kasai K, Ooki Y (2008a) Experimental study on dynamic response of wooden frames with passive control. J Struct Eng 54B:149–156 (In Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  • Matsuda K, Sakata H, Kasai K, Ooki Y (2008b) Experimental study on dynamic behavior of wooden frames with passive control system and inner-and-outer walls using shaking table. In: 14th World conference on earthquake engineering. Beijing, China, p 7

  • Matsuda K, Sakata H, Kasai K (2010) Seismic response controlled effect of wooden houses by framed analysis. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Riva del Garda, Italy, p 7

  • Matsuda K, Kasai K, Sakata H (2012) Analytical study on passively controlled 2-story wooden frame by detailed frame model. In: 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal

  • McMullin KM, Merrick D (2002) Seismic performance of gypsum walls: Experimental test program. California Institute of Technology and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, Richmond

    Google Scholar 

  • Moroder D, Buchanan AH, Pampanin S (2013) Preventing seismic damage to floors in post-tensioned timber frame buildings. New Zeal Timber Des J 21:9–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Moroder D, Sarti F, Palermo A et al (2014) Experimental investigation of wall-to-floor connections in post-tensioned timber buildings. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Auckland, New Zealand

  • Morrell I, Phillips A, Dolan JD, Blomgren H-E (2018) Development of an inter-panel connector for cross-laminated timber rocking walls. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Mualla I, Belev B (2017) Overview of Recent Projects Implementing Rotational Friction Dampers. In: 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Santiago, Chile, pp 1–12

  • Myslimaj B, Midorikawa M, Iiba M, Ikenaga M (2002) Seismic behavior of a newly developed base isolation system for houses. J Asian Archit Build Eng 1:17–24. https://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.1.2_17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Naeim F, Kelly JM (1999) Design of seismic isolated structures: from theory to practice, 1st edn. Wiley, Hoboken

  • Newcombe MP (2011) Seismic design of post-tensioned timber frame and wall buildings. University of Canterbury

  • Newcombe MP, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH, Palermo A (2008) Section analysis and cyclic behavior of post-tensioned jointed ductile connections for multi-story timber buildings. J Earthq Eng 12:83–110. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460801925632

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newcombe MP, Cusiel MR, Pampanin S et al (2010a) Simplified design of post-tensioned timber frames. In: CIB - W18 Workshop on Timber Structures. Nelson, New Zealand, p 10

    Google Scholar 

  • Newcombe MP, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2010b) Design, fabrication and assembly of a two-storey post-tensioned timber building. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Riva del Garda, Italy, pp 3092–3100

  • Newcombe MP, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2010c) Global response of a two storey Pres-Lam timber building. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Wellington, New Zealand, p 8

  • Newcombe MP, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2012) Governing criteria for the lateral force design of post-tensioned timber buildings. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 7

  • Ottenhaus LM, Li M, Smith T, Quenneville P (2018) Overstrength of dowelled CLT connections under monotonic and cyclic loading. B Earthq Eng 16(2):753–773

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palermo A, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH, Newcombe MP (2005) Seismic design of multi-storey buildings using laminated veneer lumber (LVL). In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. University of Canterbury. Civil Engineering, Wairakei, New Zealand, p 8

  • Palermo A, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2006a) Experimental investigations on LVL seismic resistant wall and frame subassemblies. In: 1st European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology. Geneva, Switzerland, p 10

  • Palermo A, Pampanin S, Fragiacomo M et al (2006b) Quasi-static cyclic tests on seismic-resistant beam-to-column and column-to-foundation subassemblies using Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL). In: 19th Australasian Conference on Mechanics and Materials. Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 1043–1049

  • Palermo A, Pampanin S, Fragiacomo M et al (2006c) Innovative Seismic Solutions for Multi-Storey LVL Timber Buildings Overview of the research program. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Portland, USA, p 8

  • Palermo A, Sarti F, Baird A et al (2012) From theory to practice: Design, analysis and construction of dissipative timber rocking post-tensioning wall system for Carterton Events Centre, New Zealand. In: 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal, p 10

  • Pall AS, Pall R (1991) Seismic response of a friction-base-isolated house in Montreal. In: 6th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Toronto, Canada, pp 375–382

  • Pampanin S, Palermo A, Buchanan AH et al (2006) Code provisions for seismic design of multi-storey post-tensioned timber buildings. In: CIB - W18 Workshop on Timber Structures. Florence, Italy

    Google Scholar 

  • Pei S, van de Lindt JW, Popovski M et al (2016) Cross-Laminated Timber for Seismic Regions: Progress and Challenges for Research and Implementation. J Struct Eng 142:E2514001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pei S, van de Lindt J, Barbosa A et al (2018) Full-scale shake table test of mass-timber building with resilient post-tensioned rocking walls. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Pino DA (2011) Dynamic response of post-tensioned timber frame buildings. University of Canterbury

  • Pino DA, Pampanin S, Carradine D et al (2010) Dynamic response of a multi-storey post-tensioned timber building. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Riva del Garda, Italy, p 8

  • Poh’Sie GH, Chisari C, Rinaldin G et al (2016) Optimal design of tuned mass dampers for a multi-storey cross laminated timber building against seismic loads. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 45:1977–1995. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2736

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Polastri A, Giongo I, Angeli A, Brandner R (2018) Mechanical characterization of a pre-fabricated connection system for cross laminated timber structures in seismic regions. Eng Struct 167:705–715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.12.022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Polocoșer T, Leimcke J, Kasal B (2018) Report on the seismic performance of three-dimensional moment-resisting timber frames with frictional damping in beam-to-column connections. Adv Struct Eng 21:1652–1663. https://doi.org/10.1177/1369433217753695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ponzo FC, Smith TJ, Di Cesare A et al (2012) Shaking table test of a multistorey post-tensioned glulam building: design and construction. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 9

  • Popovski M, Karacabeyli E (2012) Seismic behaviour of cross-laminated timber structures. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Auckland, New Zealand

  • Popovski M, Schneider J, Schweinsteiger M (2010) Lateral load resistance of cross-laminated wood panels. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. pp 20–24

  • Porcu MC (2017) Ductile behavior of timber structures under strong dynamic loads. In: Concu G (ed) Wood in Civil Engineering. InTech, pp 173–196

  • Pozza L, Scotta R, Trutalli D et al (2016a) Concrete-plated wooden shear walls: structural details, testing, and seismic characterization. J Struct Eng 142:E4015003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pozza L, Scotta R, Trutalli D et al (2016b) Experimentally based q -factor estimation of cross-laminated timber walls. Proc Inst Civ Eng - Struct Build 169:492–507. https://doi.org/10.1680/jstbu.15.00009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Priestley MJN (1991) Overview of PRESSS research program. PCI J 36:50–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Priestley MJN, Calvi GM, Kowalsky MJ (2007) Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Structures, 1st edn. IUSS Press, Pavia

    Google Scholar 

  • Prion HGL, Filiatrault A (1996) Performance of timber structures during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake of 17 January 1995. Can J Civ Eng 23:652–664. https://doi.org/10.1139/l96-881

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pu W, Liu C, Zhang H, Kasai K (2016) Seismic control design for slip hysteretic timber structures based on tuning the equivalent stiffness. Eng Struct 128:199–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.09.041

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pu W, Liu C, Dai F (2018) Optimum hysteretic damper design for multi-story timber structures represented by an improved pinching model. Bull Earthq Eng In press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-018-0437-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rainer JH, Karacabeyli E (1999) Performance of wood-frame building construction in earthquakes. Forintek Spec Publ Rep No SP-40

  • Reed JW, Kircher CA (1986) Base isolation of a five-story wood-frame building. In: Seminar and Workshop on Base Isolation and Passive Energy Dissipation (ATC-17). San Francisco, USA, pp 133–142

  • Sakamoto I, Ohashi Y, Fujii Y (1990) Seismic behavior of base isolated two-storied wooden building. In: 1990 International Timber Engineering Conference. Tokyo, Japan, pp 938–945

  • Sakata H, Kasai K, Wada A et al (2007) Shaking table tests of wood frames with velocity-dependent dampers. J Struct Constr Eng (Transactions AIJ) 615:161–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sakata H, Kasai K, Ooki Y, Matsuda K (2008) Experimental study on dynamic behavior of passive control system applied for conventional post-and-beam two-story wooden house using shaking table. J Struct Constr Eng (Transactions AIJ) 73:1607–1615

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sakata H, Kasai K, Matsuda K, Yamazaki Y (2017) Development of Passively Controlled Small Wooden. In: 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Santiago, Chile, p 12

  • Sarti F (2015) Seismic Design of Low-Damage Post-Tensioned Timber Wall Systems. University of Canterbury

  • Sarti F, Palermo A, Pampanin S (2012) Simplified design procedures for post-tensioned seismic resistant timber walls. In: 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal

  • Sarti F, Palermo A, Pampanin S (2016) Development and testing of an alternative dissipative posttensioned rocking timber wall with boundary columns. J Struct Eng 142:E4015011. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt T, Blaß HJ (2017) Dissipative Stahlblechverbindungen für aussteifende Wandscheiben aus Brettsperrholz. (Dissipative steel plate connection for CLT shear walls. Bautechnik 94:790–803. https://doi.org/10.1002/bate.201700062 (in German)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schneider J, Karacabeyli E, Popovski M et al (2014) Damage Assessment of Connections Used in Cross-Laminated Timber Subject to Cyclic Loads. J Perform Constr Facil 28:A4014008. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seim W, Kramar M, Pazlar T, Vogt T (2016) OSB and GFB As Sheathing Materials for Timber-Framed Shear Walls: Comparative Study of Seismic Resistance. J Struct Eng 142:E4015004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shao X, van de Lindt JW, Bahmani P et al (2014) Real-time hybrid simulation of a multi-story wood shear wall with first-story experimental substructure incorporating a rate-dependent seismic energy dissipation device. Smart Struct Syst 14:1031–1054. https://doi.org/10.12989/sss.2014.14.6.1031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shinde JK, Symans MD (2010) Integration of seismic protection systems in performance-based seismic design of woodframed structures. Technical Report MCEER-10-0003. University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, USA

  • Shinde JK, Symans MD, Filiatrault A, van de Lindt JW (2007) Application of seismic protection systems to woodframed buildings: Full-scale testing and field implementation. In: 5th Annual NEES Meeting. Snowbird, USA

    Google Scholar 

  • Shinde JK, Symans MD, Liu H, van de Lindt JW (2008) Seismic performance assessment of woodframed structures with energy dissipation systems. In: 18th Conference on Analysis and Computation held in Conjunction with ASCE/SEI Structures Congress. Vancouver, Canada, pp 1–9

  • Shu Z, Li Z, He M et al (2018) Seismic design and performance evaluation of self-centering timber moment resisting frames. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2018.08.038

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simonetti M, Ponzo FC, Di Cesare A et al (2014) Non-linear numerical modelling of a post-tensioned timber frame building with dissipative steel angle devices. In: 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Istanbul, Turkey, p 12

  • Smith TJ (2008) Feasibility of Multi Storey Post-Tensioned Timber Buildings: Detailing, Cost and Construction. University of Canterbury

  • Smith TJ, Ludwig F, Pampanin S et al (2007) Seismic response of hybrid-LVL coupled walls under quasi-static and pseudo-dynamic testing. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Palmerston North, New Zealand

  • Smith TJ, Fragiacomo M, Pampanin S, Buchanan AH (2009) Construction time and cost for post-tensioned timber buildings. Proc Inst Civ Eng Mater 162:141–149

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith TJ, Pampanin S, Carradine D et al (2012a) Dynamic Testing of Multi-storey Post-tensioned Glulam Building: Planning, Design and Numerical Analysis. In: 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal

  • Smith TJ, Ponzo FC, Di Cesare A et al (2012b) Seismic performance of a post-tensioned glue laminated beam to column joint: experimental and numerical results. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Auckland, New Zealand, p 9

  • Smith TJ, Pampanin S, Cesare AD et al (2014a) Shaking table testing of a multi-storey post-tensioned timber building. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Auckland, New Zealand

  • Smith TJ, Ponzo FC, Di Cesare A et al (2014b) Post-tensioned glulam beam-column joints with advanced damping systems: testing and numerical analysis. J Earthq Eng 18:147–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2013.835291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith TJ, Watson C, Moroder D et al (2016) Lateral performance of a Pres-Lam frame designed for gravity loads. Eng Struct 122:33–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.05.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swensen S, Acevedo C, Jampole EA et al (2014) Toward damage free residential houses through unibody light-frame construction with seismic isolation. In: SEAOC 2014 83rd Annual Convention. Indian Wells, USA, p 15

    Google Scholar 

  • Symans MD, Cofer WF, Du Y, Fridley KJ (2002a) Evaluation of fluid dampers for seismic energy dissipation of woodframe structures. California Institute of Technology and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, Richmond

    Google Scholar 

  • Symans MD, Cofer WF, Fridley KJ (2002b) Base isolation and supplemental damping systems for seismic protection of wood structures: Literature review. Earthq Spectra 18:549–572. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1503342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Symans MD, Cofer WF, Fridley KJ, Du Y (2002c) Effects of supplemental energy dissipation systems on the seismic response of light-framed wood buildings. In: 7th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Boston, USA

  • Symans MD, Cofer WF, Du Y, Fridley KJ (2004) Seismic Behavior of Wood-framed Structures with Viscous Fluid Dampers. Earthq Spectra 20:451–482. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1731616

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Symans MD, Yang S, Mosqueda G et al (2017) Development of Compact Damper Framing Systems for Seismic Protection of Structures. In: 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Santiago, Chile

  • Tamagnone G, Fragiacomo M (2018) On the rocking behavior of CLT wall assembiles. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Tannert T, Follesa M, Fragiacomo M et al (2018) Seismic design of cross-laminated timber buildings. Wood Fiber Sci 50:3–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tian J (2014) Performance-Based Seismic Retrofit of Soft-Story Woodframe Buildings Using Energy-Dissipation Systems. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

  • Tian J, Symans MD, Gershfeld M et al (2014) Seismic performance of a full-scale soft-story woodframed building with energy dissipation retrofit. In: Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Anchorage, USA, p 11

  • Tian J, Symans MD, Pang W et al (2016) Application of Energy Dissipation Devices for Seismic Protection of Soft-Story Wood-Frame Buildings in Accordance with FEMA Guidelines. J Struct Eng 142:E4015009. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tomasi R, Casagrande D, Grossi P, Sartori T (2015a) Shaking table tests on a three-storey timber building. Proc Inst Civ Eng - Struct Build 168:853–867. https://doi.org/10.1680/jstbu.14.00026

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tomasi R, Sartori T, Casagrande D, Piazza M (2015b) Shaking Table Testing of a Full-Scale Prefabricated Three-Story Timber-Frame Building. J Earthq Eng 19:505–534. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2014.974291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Valadbeigi A, Zarnani P, Quenneville P (2018) Out-Of-Plane Experimental Behaviour of a Timber Column with Resilient SlipFriction Joints. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • van de Lindt JW, Jiang Y (2014) Empirical selection equation for friction pendulum seismic isolation bearings applied to multistory woodframe buildings. Pract Period Struct Des Constr 19:4014010. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)SC.1943-5576.0000198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van de Lindt JW, Pei S, Liu H, Filiatrault A (2010a) Experimental Seismic Response of a Full-Scale Light-Frame Wood Building. J Struct Eng 136:246–254. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van de Lindt JW, Pei S, Pryor SE et al (2010b) Experimental Seismic Response of a Full-Scale Six-Story Light-Frame Wood Building. J Struct Eng 136:1262–1272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van de Lindt JW, Liu H, Symans MD, Shinde JK (2011) Seismic performance and modeling of a half-scale base-isolated wood frame building. J Earthq Eng 15:469–490. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2010.498561

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van de Lindt JW, Abell GT, Bahmani P et al (2013) Full-Scale Dynamic Testing of Soft-Story Retrofitted and Un-Retrofitted Woodframe Buildings. In: SEAOC 2013 Convention. San Diego, USA, pp 219–228

  • van de Lindt JW, Bahmani P, Mochizuki G et al (2016) Experimental seismic behavior of a full-scale four-story soft-story wood-frame building with retrofits. II: shake table test results. J Struct Eng 142:E4014004. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ventura CE, Taylor GW, Prion HGL et al (2002) Full-scale shaking table studies of woodframe residential construction. In: 7th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Boston, USA

  • Wanninger F (2015) Post-tensioned timber frame structures. Zürich, Switzerland

  • Wanninger F, Frangi A (2014) Experimental and analytical analysis of a post-tensioned timber connection under gravity loads. Eng Struct 70:117–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.03.042

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wanninger F, Frangi A, Fragiacomo M (2015) Long-term behavior of posttensioned timber connections. J Struct Eng 141:4014155. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wiebe L, Christopoulos C, Tremblay R, Leclerc M (2013) Mechanisms to limit higher mode effects in a controlled rocking steel frame. 1: Concept, modelling, and low-amplitude shake table testing. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 42:1053–1068

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xie W, Araki Y, Chang W-S (2018) Enhancing the seismic performance of historic timber buildings in Asia by applying super-elastic alloy to a Chinese complex bracket system. Int J Archit Herit 12:734–748. https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2018.1442528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamazaki Y, Kasai K, Sakata H (2010) Torsional seismic response reduction by passive control devise for conventional post-and-beam one-story wooden house with stiffness eccentricity. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering. Riva del Garda, Italy, p 11

  • Yancey CWC, Somes NF (1973) Structural tests of a wood framed housing module. Rep. No. NBSIR 73–121. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC. USA

  • Yasumura M, Kobayashi K, Okabe M et al (2016) Full-Scale Tests and Numerical Analysis of Low-Rise CLT Structures under Lateral Loading. J Struct Eng 142:E4015007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yokel FY, Hsi G, Somes NF (1973) Full scale test on a two-story house subjected to lateral load. Build Sci Ser 44:56

    Google Scholar 

  • Yousef-beik SMM, Zarnani P, Mohammadi F et al (2018) New Seismic Damage Avoidant Timber Brace Using Innovative Resilient SlipFriction Joints for Multi-story Applications. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Zarnani P, Valadbeigi A, Hashemi A et al (2018) Rotational performance of Resilient Slip Friction Joint (RSFJ) as a new damage free seismic connection. In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2018. Seoul, South Korea

  • Zayas VA, Low SS (1997) Seismic Isolation of a Four-Story Wood Building. In: Earthquake performance and safety of timber structures. Forest Products Society, Madison, pp 83–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman RB, Mcdonnell E (2017) Framework—A tall re-centering mass timber building in the United States. In: New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Wellington, New Zealand, p 9

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research has been supported by the research grant project CONICYT FONDECYT 11.170.863.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pablo Guindos.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ugalde, D., Almazán, J.L., Santa María, H. et al. Seismic protection technologies for timber structures: a review. Eur. J. Wood Prod. 77, 173–194 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-019-01389-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-019-01389-9

Navigation