European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 76, Issue 6, pp 1715–1723 | Cite as

Growth strain in straight and inclined Populus × euramericana cv. ‘74/76’ trees, and its relationship with selected wood properties

  • Jingying Li
  • Shengquan LiuEmail author
  • Liang Zhou
  • Ya-Mei Liu


Growth stress is important to achieve upright growth and avoid exterior influence on living trees. However, many problems are also triggered by the release of growth stress during wood processing, such as end split of log, distortion of board and inaccurate sawing. In order to evaluate the possibility of these problems to occur in poplar clone 107, a new breeding poplar clone in China, surface longitudinal growth strain (SLGS) and internal longitudinal growth strain (ILGS) both of straight and inclined trees were measured for depicting distributing patterns of growth strain both in peripheral and radial directions. Besides that, according to one-way ANOVA analysis, individual tree and peripheral position have a significant effect on SLGS in inclined trees, whereas such effect is insignificant in straight trees. Fiber morphology and shrinkage of wood sample beneath the SLGS testing positions were determined to illustrate the relationships between these properties with SLGS. The results suggested that growth stress is a poor indicator of fiber morphology and wood shrinkage properties for straight trees but a good one for inclined trees. Both the positive SLGS and ILGS are unexpectedly found at the opposite wood side of inclined trees. It is speculated that when the reorientation of inclined trees is insufficiently supported by exerting tensile stress at tension wood side, compressive stress will be formed at the opposite wood side as a complement.



The study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31770596).


  1. Aggarwal PK, Chauhan SS, Karmarkar A, Ananthanarayana AK (1997) Measurement of longitudinal growth strains in Eucalyptus tereticornis by strain gauge technique. Wood News 7:27–30Google Scholar
  2. Aggarwal PK, Chauhan SS, Karmarkar A, Ananthanarayana AK (1998) Distribution of growth stresses in logs of Acacia auriculiformis. J Trop For Products 4:87–89Google Scholar
  3. Alméras T, Thibaut A, Gril J (2005) Effect of circumferential heterogeneity of wood maturation strain, modulus of elasticity and radial growth on the regulation of stem orientation in trees. Trees 19:457–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archer RR (1986) Growth stresses and strains in trees. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. Balatinecz JJ, Kretschmann DE, Leclercq A (2001) Achievements in the utilization of poplar wood–guideposts for the future. For Chron 77:265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bamber RK (1987) The origin of growth stresses: a rebuttal. IAWA Bull 8:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnet JR, Jeronimidis G (2003) Wood quality and its biological basis. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyd JD (1950) Tree growth stress. III. The origin of growth stress. Aust J Sci Res Ser B Biol Sci 3:294–309Google Scholar
  9. Chafe SC (1979) Growth stress in trees. Aust For Res 9:203–223Google Scholar
  10. Chafe SC (1985) Variation in longitudinal growth stress with height in trees of Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. Aust For Res 15:51–55Google Scholar
  11. Chow KY (1946) A comparative study of the structure and composition of tension wood in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Forestry 20:62–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clair B, Jaouen G, Beauchêne J, Fournier M (2003a) Mapping radial, tangential and longitudinal shrinkages and relation to tension wood in discs of the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera. Holzforschung 57:665–671Google Scholar
  13. Clair B, Ruelle J, Thibaut B (2003b) Relationship between growth stresses, mechano-physical properties and proportion of fibres with gelatinous layer in chestnut (Castanea Sativa Mill.). Holzforschung 57:189–195Google Scholar
  14. Clair B, Alméras T, Sugiyama J (2006) Compression stress in oppoiste wood of angiosperms: observations in chesnut, mani and poplar. Ann For Sci 63:507–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dinwoodie JM (1966) Growth stresses in timber. Rev Literature For Chron 39:162–170Google Scholar
  16. Fang C-H, Clair B, Gril J, Alméras T (2007) Transverse shrinkage in G-fibers as a function of cell wall layering and growth strain. Wood Sci Technol 41:659–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fang C-H, Guibal D, Bruno C, Gril J, Liu Y-m, Liu S-q (2008) Relationship between growth stress and wood properties in poplar I-69 (Populus deltoides Bartr. cv.”Lux"ex I-69/55). Ann For Sci 65:307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang YS, Chen SS, Lin TP, Chen YS (2001) Growth stress distribution in leaning trunks of Cryptomeria japonica. Tree Physiol 21:261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jullien D, Gril J (2008) Growth strain assessment at the periphery of small-diameter trees using the two-grooves method: influence of operating parameters estimated by nummerical simulations. Wood Sci Technol 42:551–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kärki T (2001) Variation of wood density and shrinkage in European aspen (Populus tremula). Holz Roh Werkst 59:79–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kubler H (1987) Growth stresses in trees and related wood properties. For Abstr 48:131–189Google Scholar
  22. Kuo-Huang L-L, Chen S-S, Huang Y-S, Chen S-J, Hsieh Y-I (2007) Growth strains and related wood structures in the leaning trunks and branches of Trochodendron aralioides—a vessel-less dicotyledon. IAWA J 28:211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu X-l (2005) Relationship between growth strain and wood properties and forming mechanism of high growth strain of Eucalyptus uropphylla × E. grandis plantation. Doctor Thesis, Forestry Research Institute of China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  24. Maeglin RR (1987) Juvenile wood, tension wood, and growth stress effects on processing hardwoods. In: Proceedings: annual hardwood symposium of the hardwood research council (15th), 1987. pp 100–108Google Scholar
  25. Malan FS (1988) Relationships between growth stress levels and some tree characteristics in South African grown Eucalyptus grandis. S Afr For J 144:43–46Google Scholar
  26. Malan FS, Male JR, Venter JSM (1994) Relationship between the properties of eucalypt wood and some chemical, pulp and paper properties. Paper S Afr 2:6–16Google Scholar
  27. McMillin CW (1969) Aspects of fiber morphology affecting properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood. Wood Sci Technol 3:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muneri A, Leggate W, Palmer G (1999) Relationships between surface growth strain and some trees. wood and sawn timber characteristics of Eucalyptus cloeziana. S Afr For J 186:41–49Google Scholar
  29. Nicholson JE (1971) A rapid method for estimating longitudinal growth stresses in logs. Wood Sci Technol 5:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nicholson JE (1973) Growth stress differences in Eucalyptus. For Sci 19:169–184Google Scholar
  31. Nicholson JE, Ditchburne N (1973) Shrinkage prediction based on analysis of three wood properties. Wood Sci 6:188–189Google Scholar
  32. Nicholson JE, Hillis WE, Ditchburne N (1975) Some tree growth-wood property relationships of eucalypts. J For Res 5:424–432Google Scholar
  33. Okuyama T, Sasaki Y, Kikata Y, Kawai N (1981) The seasonal change in growth stress in the tree trunk. Mokuzai Gakkai 27:350–355Google Scholar
  34. Okuyama T, Akira K, Yoji K, Yasutoshi S (1983) Growth stresses and uneven gravitational-stimulus in trees containing reaction wood. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 29:190–196Google Scholar
  35. Okuyama T, Kanagawa Y, Hattori Y (1987) Reduction of residual stresses in logs by direct heating method. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 33:837–843Google Scholar
  36. Okuyama T, Yamamoto H, Iguchi M, Yoshida M (1990) Generation process of growth stresses in cell walls II. Growth stresses in tension wood. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 36:797–803Google Scholar
  37. Okuyama T, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Hattori Y, Archer RR (1994) Growth stresses in tension wood: role of microfibrils and lignification. Ann For Sci 51:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rongjun Z, Chunli Y, Xianbao C, Jianxiong L, Benhua F, Yurong W (2014) Anatomical, chemical and mechanical properties of fast-growing cv. ‘74/76’. IAWA J 35:158–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sharma M, Walker JCF, Chauhan SS (2017a) Eliminating growth-stresses in eucalyptus: a scoping study with E. bosistoana and E. nitens. In: Pandey KK, Ramakantha V, Chauhan SS, Arun Kumar AN (eds) Wood is good: current trends and future prospects in wood utilization. Springer, Singapore, pp 47–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharma S, Sumbali S, Aggarwal P, Chauhan SS (2017b) Longitudinal growth strains in Melia dubia. In: Pandey KK, Ramakantha V, Chauhan SS, Arun Kumar AN (eds) Wood is good: current trends and future prospects in wood utilization. Springer, Singapore, pp 55–62. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sujan KC, Yamamoto H, Matsuo M, Yoshida M, Naito K, Shirai T (2015) Continuum contraction of tension wood fiber induced by repetitive hygrothermal treatment. Wood Sci Technol 49:1157–1169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sujan KC et al (2016) Is hygrothermal recovery of tension wood temperature-dependent? Wood Sci Technol 50:759–772. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tanaka M, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Matsuo M, Lahjie AM (2015) Retarded recovery of remaining growth stress in Agathis wood specimen caused by drying and subsequent re-swelling treatments. Eur J Wood Prod 73:289–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wahyudi I, Okuyama T, Hadi YS, Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Watanabe H (1999) Growth stresses and strains in Acacia mangium. For Products J 49:77–81Google Scholar
  45. Washusen R, Ilic J (2001) Relationship between transverse shrinkage and tension wood from three provenances of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Holz Roh Werkst 59:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Washusen R, Ades P, Evans R, Ilic J, Vinden P (2001) Relationships between density,shrinkage, extractives content and microfibril angle in tension wood from three provenancesof 10-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Holzforschung 55:176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Washusen R, Ilic J, Waugh G (2003) The relationship between longitudinal growth strain and the occurrence of gelatinous fibers in 10 and 11-year-old Eucalyptus globules Labill. Holz Roh Werkst 61:299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yamamoto H, Okuyama T, Yoshida M, Sugiyama K (1991) Generation process of growth stresses in cell walls III. Growth stresses in compression wood. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 37:94–100Google Scholar
  49. Yamamoto H, Yoshida M, Okuyama T (2002) Growth stress controls negative gravitropism in woody plant stems. Planta 216:280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yamamoto H, Abe K, Arakawa Y, Okuyama T, Gril J (2005) Role of the gelatinous layer (G-layer) on the origin of the physical properties of the tension wood of Acer sieboldianum. J Wood Sci 51:222–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yamashita S, Yoshida M, Takayama S, Okuyama T (2007) Stem-righting mechanism in gymnosperm trees deduced from limitations in compression wood development. Ann Bot 99:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yang JL, Waugh G (2001) Growth stress, its measurement and effects. Aust For 64:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yoshida M, Okuyama T (2000) Techniques for measuring growth stress on the xylem surface using strain and dial gauges. Holzforschung 56:739–746Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingying Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shengquan Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liang Zhou
    • 1
  • Ya-Mei Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Products, School of Forestry and Landscape ArchitectureAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Tianxiang Environment Engineering Co. LtdHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations