European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 1409–1416 | Cite as

The potential of phenol–formaldehyde as plasticizing agent for moulding applications of wood veneer: two-dimensional and three-dimensional moulding

  • Tom Franke
  • Nadine Herold
  • Beate Buchelt
  • Alexander Pfriem


Two phenol–formaldehyde resols, namely a low and a medium molecular weight phenol–formaldehyde, were investigated for their applicability as plasticizers in moulding of European beech veneer (Fagus sylvatica L.). Therefore, beech veneers specimens were impregnated with both phenol–formaldehyde resol types in various concentrations. Subsequently, two-dimensional mouldability of the veneer was tested in a three-point-bending test along and perpendicular to the grain. Additionally, three-dimensional moulding of the phenol–formaldehyde impregnated veneer was tested throughout a modified Erichsen cupping test, where the veneer is pressed through a circular shaped coining die. The obtained results indicate a significantly improved mouldability of the treated beech veneers compared to untreated, water-saturated control specimens. Even at low phenol–formaldehyde concentrations plasticizing effects were detected in longitudinal direction and perpendicular to the grain. These findings are substantiated by results from three-dimensional moulding. Furthermore, the low molecular weight phenol–formaldehyde treated veneers displayed a higher mouldability than medium molecular weight phenol–formaldehyde specimens at similar phenol–formaldehyde concentration.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) for the financial support (Grant number 13FH001PX4). Furthermore, we like to acknowledge Prefere Resins® Germany GmbH Erkner for providing the PF resins.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Wood EngineeringEberswalde University for Sustainable DevelopmentEberswaldeGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Natural Materials TechnologyTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

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