European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 843–851 | Cite as

Modification of beech veneers with lignin phenol formaldehyde resins in the production of laminated veneer lumber (LVL)

  • Marco Fleckenstein
  • Vladimirs Biziks
  • Carsten Mai
  • Holger Militz


Rotary cut beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) veneers were treated with four different lignin phenol formaldehyde (LPF) solutions using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Four of these veneers were bonded with PF adhesive to produce four-layer laminated veneer lumber (LVL). To synthesize the LPF solutions, a commercial phenol formaldehyde resin (PF resin) was individually mixed with three different technical lignins (Indulin AT, BioChoice lignin, organosolv lignin) and lignin cleavage products (LCP) at a ratio of 3:2 (60%:40%). Differential scanning calorimetry showed an increased curing temperature for the LPF resins in comparison to the PF resin. The mechanical and water-related properties of the LPF-modified LVL were shown to be similar or slightly improved compared to PF-modified LVL. Fungal degradation experiments with white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) and brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana) exhibited no significant differences in the mass loss of the LPF-modified and PF-modified samples except in one case: LVL made from veneers treated with Indulin AT exposed to the white-rot fungus. The resistance to weathering of LVL samples made from veneers treated with technical lignins was low; however, specimens treated with LCP and the reference PF resin displayed a higher resistance to weathering. It is concluded that technical lignins or LCP can, to a certain extent, be used as a substitute for crude-oil based PF resin.



The authors would like to thank the “Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur” for financial support, Fraunhofer CBP and Stora Enso for lignin delivery and Bionic Laboratories BLG GmbH for providing the lignin degradation products.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Fleckenstein
    • 1
  • Vladimirs Biziks
    • 1
  • Carsten Mai
    • 1
  • Holger Militz
    • 1
  1. 1.Wood Biology and Wood ProductsGeorg-August-University GöttingenGöttingenGermany

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