European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 953–964 | Cite as

Comparison of moisture-dependent orthotropic Young’s moduli of Chinese fir wood determined by ultrasonic wave method and static compression or tension tests

  • Jiali Jiang
  • Erik Valentine Bachtiar
  • Jianxiong Lu
  • Peter Niemz


Wood with distinctively different properties in the longitudinal, radial and tangential directions exhibits a strong moisture-dependent material characteristic in the elastic range. The purpose of this study was to analyze the orthotropic elastic properties of Chinese fir wood [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook] determined at different moisture conditions using an ultrasonic wave propagation method. The results were compared with those obtained by the traditional static compression or tension tests. The results confirm that the stiffness coefficients obtained by the ultrasound without considering the complete stiffness matrix show significantly higher values than the compression or tension Young’s moduli in all the three anatomical directions at each specific MC. The differences between stiffness coefficients and Young’s moduli were significantly reduced by corrections with Poisson ratio. Only in tangential direction, the Young’s moduli with Poisson ratio correction are statistically equivalent to the Young’s moduli obtained by compression and tension.



This research was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31570548). J. J. would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the China Scholarship Council (CSC). A special thanks goes to Franco Michel and Thomas Schnider for their help during specimen preparation and their expert assistance in conducting the measurements.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

All authors have approved this version of the article and agreed for its submission in your journal. The manuscript has not been published previously, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. In addition, the authors declare that they fulfill all the ethical responsibilities required by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiali Jiang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erik Valentine Bachtiar
    • 2
  • Jianxiong Lu
    • 1
  • Peter Niemz
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Wood IndustryChinese Academy of ForestryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute for Building MaterialsETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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