Comparison of moisture-dependent orthotropic Young’s moduli of Chinese fir wood determined by ultrasonic wave method and static compression or tension tests
- 106 Downloads
Wood with distinctively different properties in the longitudinal, radial and tangential directions exhibits a strong moisture-dependent material characteristic in the elastic range. The purpose of this study was to analyze the orthotropic elastic properties of Chinese fir wood [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook] determined at different moisture conditions using an ultrasonic wave propagation method. The results were compared with those obtained by the traditional static compression or tension tests. The results confirm that the stiffness coefficients obtained by the ultrasound without considering the complete stiffness matrix show significantly higher values than the compression or tension Young’s moduli in all the three anatomical directions at each specific MC. The differences between stiffness coefficients and Young’s moduli were significantly reduced by corrections with Poisson ratio. Only in tangential direction, the Young’s moduli with Poisson ratio correction are statistically equivalent to the Young’s moduli obtained by compression and tension.
This research was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31570548). J. J. would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the China Scholarship Council (CSC). A special thanks goes to Franco Michel and Thomas Schnider for their help during specimen preparation and their expert assistance in conducting the measurements.
Compliance with ethical standards
All authors have approved this version of the article and agreed for its submission in your journal. The manuscript has not been published previously, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. In addition, the authors declare that they fulfill all the ethical responsibilities required by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
- Bodig J, Jayne BA (1982) Mechanics of wood and wood composites. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Bucur V (2006) Acoustics of wood. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Gonçalves R, Trinca AJ, Cerri DGP (2011) Comparison of elastic constants of wood determined by ultrasonic wave propagation and static compression testing. Wood Fiber Sci 43:64–75Google Scholar
- Jernqvist LO, Thuvander F (2001) Experimental determination of stiffness variation across growth rings in Picea abies. Holzforschung 55:309–317Google Scholar
- Mark RE (1967) Cell wall mechanics of tracheids. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
- McBurney RS, Drow JT (1962) The elastic properties of wood: Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratios of Douglas-fir and their relations to moisture content. Forest Product Laboratory, Report No. 1528-D, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
- Niemz P, Daniel H, Andreas H (2014) Physical and mechanical properties of Common Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior L.). Wood Res 59:671–682Google Scholar
- Nzokou P, Kamdem DP (2004) Influence of wood extractives on moisture sorption and wettability of red oak (Quercus rubra), black cherry (Prunus serotina), and red pine (Pinus resinosa). Wood Fiber Sci 36(4):483–492Google Scholar
- Oliveira FGR, Campos JAO, Pletz E, Sales A (2002) Nondestructive evaluation of wood using ultrasonic technique. Maderas Ciencia Y Tecnologia 4:133–139Google Scholar
- Ozyhar T, Hering S, Niemz P (2013a) Moisture-dependent orthotropic tension-compression asymmetry of wood. Holzforschung 67:395–404Google Scholar
- Watanabe U (1998) Shrinkage and elastic properties of coniferous wood in relation to cellular structure. Wood Res Bull Wood Res Inst Kyoto Univ 85:1–47Google Scholar