European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 57–65 | Cite as

Manufacture and properties of citric acid-bonded particleboard made from bamboo materials

  • Ragil WidyoriniEmail author
  • Kenji Umemura
  • Ramadhanu Isnan
  • Dian Rahma Putra
  • Ali Awaludin
  • Tibertius Agus Prayitno


Utilization of citric acid as natural binder for non-wood composite is still limited. Therefore, this study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from bamboo using citric acid as natural binder. Three bamboo particles, i.e. petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper), wulung bamboo (Gigantochloa atroviolacea), and apus bamboo (Gigantochloa apus) were used as raw materials in this research. Citric acid contents were set at 0, 15 and 30 wt.% based on air-dried particles. Two classifications of petung bamboo particle sizes (coarse and fine particles) were used in this research. The particleboards were also made as single layer and three layer boards with variation of layer compositions. The results showed that addition of citric acid could significantly improve the dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the boards, while bamboo species did not significantly affect the properties of boards. Fine particles provided higher internal bond strength of the particleboard than coarse particles, due to bigger contact area among fine particles. Single layer particleboard provided higher internal bond strength compared to the three layer ones. The properties of citric acid-bonded bamboo particleboard in this research could meet the requirements of the Japanese Industrial Standard for particleboard (A 5908). Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that the peak at around 1734 cm−1 was hardly recognized in binderless board, however it clearly appeared in citric acid-bonded particleboards. As a result of reaction between citric acid and bamboo, good properties of particleboards could be obtained.


Citric Acid Coarse Particle Resin Content Bamboo Species Thickness Swell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to Directorate General of Higher Education Ministry of National Education Indonesia and Universitas Gadjah Mada (Research Grant No. LPPM-UGM/1379/LIT/2013 and LPPM-UGM/462/LIT/2014). The authors also thank the student Ari Puspa Yudha for her assistance in fabrication of the composite.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ragil Widyorini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kenji Umemura
    • 2
  • Ramadhanu Isnan
    • 1
  • Dian Rahma Putra
    • 1
  • Ali Awaludin
    • 3
  • Tibertius Agus Prayitno
    • 1
  1. 1.Forest Product Technology Department, Faculty of ForestryUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Research Institute for Sustainable HumanosphereKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of EngineeringUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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