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Starch-sugar synergy in wood adhesion science: basic studies and particleboard production

Abstract

Synergic properties between starch and sugar were discovered. 100% crop-based starch and sugar formulations were studied. Classical preliminary tests such as curing temperature and gel time were measured for different starch-sucrose water suspensions. More significant information was deducted with applied tests such as plywood gluing tests and particleboard production. Wood-to-wood bonding properties were analysed applying NaOH and high temperature (180°C) as catalysts for starch gelification. Comparable strength to commercial urea-formaldehyde and polyvinyl acetate adhesives was achieved in plywood tests. Consequently, the knowledge acquired in wood bonding of flat surfaces was applied to particleboard production. These derived particleboards showed that it is possible to obtain a panel with only carbohydrates as gluing agent. Starch-sugar synergy in alkaline environment increases the internal bond (IB) of the natural panels up to 0.25 N/mm2. Possible mechanisms of synergy between these saccharides were proposed. Finally, a blended formulation with Mimosa tannin allows for achieving an internal bond of 0.40 N/mm2, which is the required value for interior grade particleboards (DIN EN 312). Starch-sugar-tannin adhesives are 100% environmentally-friendly formulations.

Zusammenfassung

Es wurden Synergieeffekte zwischen Stärke und Zucker in Klebstoffformulierungen entdeckt. Formulierungen mit 100 %iger natürlicher Stärke und Zucker wurden untersucht. Dabei wurden in klassischen Voruntersuchungen die Aushärtezeiten und Gelierzeiten von unterschiedlichen, wässrigen Stärke-Zucker-Formulierungen bestimmt. Aussagekräftige Ergebnisse zu mechanischen Festigkeiten wurden durch Verklebungsuntersuchungen mittels Sperrholzplatten und Herstellung von Spanplatten erzielt. Die Untersuchungen zur Klebefestigkeit im Quer-Zug-Versuch mittels Sperrholzplatten wurden nach dem Verpressen der Proben bei hohen Temperaturen (180°C) und unter Verwendung von Natronlauge als Katalysator für die Gelierung der Stärke durchgeführt. Die Untersuchungen mittels Sperrholzplattentests zeigten, dass vergleichbare Festigkeitswerte der Stärke-Zucker-Formulierungen zu handelsüblichen Polyurethan- und Polyvinylacetatklebstoffen erreicht werden konnten. Das Wissen aus den flächigen Verklebungen der Sperrholzplatten wurde für die Spanplattenerzeugung verwendet. Die entwickelten Klebstoffrezepturen zeigten die Möglichkeit auf, allein mittels Kohlenhydrat-Klebstoffen gebundene Spanplatten herzustellen. Stärke-Zucker-Synergien im alkalischen Bereich steigern die Querzugfestigkeit der kohlenhydratgebundenen Platten auf 0,25 N/mm2. Mögliche Mechanismen der Synergien zwischen diesen Sacchariden wurden ebenfalls beschrieben. Formulierungen mit Mimosa Tannin erbrachten eine Querzugsfestigkeit von 0,40 N/mm2, dies entspricht den Anforderungen der Norm (DIN EN 312) für Spanplatten für den Innenbereich. Stärke-Zucker-Tannin-Klebstoffe sind 100 %ige umweltfreundliche Formulierungen.

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Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the bachelor students Raphael Lampl, Martin Pavicsics, Christian Kolbitsch of the Forest Products Technology & Wood Construction and Mr. Hessenberger, HDEMC Hessenberger GmbH, for their ideas and contributions within the project. We further acknowledge the financial support of FWF Lise Meitner project M 1232-B16 and the FFG innovation check n. 824111.

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Correspondence to G. Tondi.

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Tondi, G., Wieland, S., Wimmer, T. et al. Starch-sugar synergy in wood adhesion science: basic studies and particleboard production. Eur. J. Wood Prod. 70, 271–278 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-011-0553-z

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Keywords

  • Starch
  • Amylose
  • Polyvinyl Acetate
  • Internal Bond
  • Sugar Powder