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Evaluation of formaldehyde emission of pine and wattle tannin-based adhesives by gas chromatography

Schätzung der Formaldehydabgabe von Klebern auf Basis von Kiefern- und Akazientannin mittels Gas-Chromatographie

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Abstract

Formaldehyde emissions from wood particleboards bonded with pine and wattle tannin-based adhesives, using hardeners paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine and TN (tris(hydroxyl)nitromethan), were measured by the perforator method (DIN EN 120—European Committee For Standardization 1991). All particleboards made using the wattle tannin systems with the three different hardeners were satisfied grade E1, while in the case of pine tannin only the use of the hexamine hardener led to grade E1 being satisfied. This tendency was attributed to the curing mechanism of the hardener, the reactivity of the tannin molecule toward formaldehyde and the fast reactivity toward formaldehyde of pine tannin, due to the inclusion of phloroglucinolic A-rings within its molecular structure. Hexamine was effective at reducing formaldehyde emission in tannin-based adhesives when used as the hardener. Being a more sensitive and advanced method, it was also used. The samples used for gas chromatography were gathered during the perforator method. The formaldehyde emission levels obtained from gas chromatography were similar to those obtained from the perforator method.

Zusammenfassung

Die Formaldehydabgabe von Spanplatten, die mit Klebern aus Kiefern- und Akazientannin gebunden waren, wurden mittels der Perforatormethode gemessen (DIN EN 120 1991). Als Härter wurden Paraformaldehyd, Hexamethylentetramin and TN (Tris(hydroxyl)nitromethan verwendet. Alle Spanplatten, die unter Gebrauch des Akazientannin-Systems mit drei verschiedenen Härtern hergestellt wurden, genügten Grad E1, während bei Kieferntannin nur der Gebrauch von Hexaminhärter zu Grad E1 führte. Diese Tendenz war dem Mechanismus des Aushärtens des Härters zuzuschreiben und zwar der Reaktivität der Tanninmoleküle gegenüber Formaldehyd und der schnellen Reaktivität des Kiefertannins gegenüber Formaldehyd, aufgrund der Einschlüsse von Phloroglucin-A-Ringen innerhalb der molekularen Struktur. Hexamin war wirksam, um die Formaldehydabgabe bei Tanninklebern zu reduzieren, wenn es als Härter verwendet wurde. Da es eine empfindlichere und fortgeschrittenere Methode war, wurde sie ebenfalls angewendet. Die Proben, die für die Gaschromatographie verwendet wurden, wurden während der Perforatormethode gesammelt. Die Werte der Formaldehydabgaben, die durch Einsatz der Gaschromatographie erhalten wurden, waren denjenigen ähnlich, die man mittels der Perforatormethode erhielt.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Brain Korea 21 Project in 2003.

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Correspondence to H.-J. Kim.

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Kim, S., Kim, H. Evaluation of formaldehyde emission of pine and wattle tannin-based adhesives by gas chromatography. Holz Roh Werkst 62, 101–106 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-003-0441-2

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Keywords

  • Tannin
  • Volatile Organic Compound
  • Formaldehyde Emission
  • Hexamethylenetetramine
  • Wood Particle