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Druckausgleichende Funktion der Eustachischen Röhre

Evaluation in einer hypo-/hyperbaren Druckkammer

The pressure-equalizing function of the Eustachian tube

Evaluation in a hypo-/hyperbaric pressure chamber

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die Eustachische Röhre bildet eine Verbindung zwischen der Paukenhöhle (Cavum tympani) und dem Nasenrachen (Nasopharynx), über die ein Druckausgleich zwischen Mittelohr und Umgebungsdruck möglich ist. Insbesondere beim Tauchen und Fliegen ist ein funktionierender Druckausgleich aufgrund von ungewohnt großen Druckdifferenzen nötig.

Fragestellung

Die Überprüfung der druckausgleichenden Tubenfunktion ist weiterhin eine klinisch-wissenschaftliche Herausforderung. Dieser Übersichtsartikel evaluiert die vorhandene Datenlage.

Methoden

Verschiedene Methoden zur Überprüfung der Tubenfunktion werden nach Literaturrecherche unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Evaluation der druckausgleichenden Tubenfunktion in einer hypo-/hyperbaren Druckkammer vorgestellt und bewertet.

Ergebnisse

Mit der Druckkammer steht ein Diagnostikum zur Verfügung, das einerseits die Dynamik der Tubenfunktion im aktiven und passiven Druckausgleich provoziert und andererseits eine genaue Messung der Drücke im Millibarbereich ermöglicht.

Schlussfolgerung

Die Untersuchung der Funktion der Eustachischen Röhre in einer Druckkammer scheint aufgrund der vorliegenden Datenlage geeignet, um Therapien der Tubendysfunktion zu beurteilen. Weitere Studien sind notwendig, um den Stellenwert der Druckkammer in Zusammenschau mit anderen Funktionsprüfungen zu evaluieren.

Abstract

Background

The Eustachian tube connects the tympanic cavity (cavum tympani) and the nasopharynx, and enables pressure equalization between the middle ear and ambient pressure. Functional pressure compensation is very important for flying and diving in particular, due to non-physiologically large pressure differences.

Objective

Evaluation of the pressure-equalizing function of the Eustachian tube is still a clinical challenge. This review article evaluates the existing data.

Methods

Based on a selective literature search, different methods for evaluation of tube function are presented and evaluated, with special reference to evaluation of the pressure-equalizing function in a hypo-/hyperbaric pressure chamber.

Results

The pressure chamber enables the dynamics of active and passive pressure compensation to be provoked and also permits accurate measurement of pressures in the millibar range.

Conclusion

A pressure chamber seems to be suitable to evaluate Eustachian tube function and therapeutic approaches to tube dysfunction. Further studies are needed to assess the value of the pressure chamber in combination with other functional tests.

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Correspondence to S. Jansen.

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Interessenkonflikt

S. Jansen, M.F. Meyer, K.-B. Hüttenbrink und D. Beutner geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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W. Baumgartner, Wien P. K. Plinkert, Heidelberg M. Ptok, Hannover C. Sittel, Stuttgart N. Stasche, Kaiserslautern B. Wollenberg, Lübeck

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Jansen, S., Meyer, M.F., Hüttenbrink, KB. et al. Druckausgleichende Funktion der Eustachischen Röhre. HNO 65, 634–642 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00106-016-0293-9

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Tuba Eustachii
  • Dekompression
  • Barotrauma
  • Tauchen
  • Mittelohr

Keywords

  • Auditory tube
  • Decompression
  • Barotrauma
  • Diving
  • Middle ear