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Riechstörungen

Epidemiologie und Therapie in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

In den USA erkranken pro Jahr ca. 200.000 Patienten neu an Riechstörungen. Epidemiologische Daten liegen für den deutschsprachigen Raum nicht vor.

Ziel und Fragestellung

Erhebung von Prävalenzen, Ursachen und Therapiekonzepten von/bei Riechstörungen im deutschsprachigen Raum.

Methoden und Ergebnisse

Ein Fragebogen zu Riechstörungen und deren Therapie wurde an alle HNO-Kliniken in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz verschickt (Rücklaufquote 52%). Im Mittel werden pro Klinik 46 Patienten mit Riechstörungen im Monat behandelt. Häufigste Ursachen sind Entzündungen der Nase/Nebenhöhlen (53%), gefolgt von respiratorischen (19%) und postviralen Riechstörungen (11%). Bei der pharmakologischen Therapie finden Steroide die breiteste Anwendung (topisch: 82%; systemisch: 65%), über 40% verwenden Vitamin-Komplexe und Zink. Chirurgische Maßnahmen werden von 80% zur Behandlung der Grunderkrankung eingesetzt (meist NNH-OPs; Septumplastiken).

Schlussfolgerungen

Basierend auf den hier erhobenen Daten werden pro Jahr mehr als 79.000 Patienten mit Riechstörungen (meist sinunasaler Ätiologie) alleine an deutschen HNO-Kliniken behandelt. Die Behandlungskonzepte bei Riechstörungen sind regional sehr unterschiedlich, ebenso die Indikationsstellung für eine Therapie unter Berücksichtigung der Ätiologie. Maßnahmen zur Qualitätssicherung der Therapie von Riechstörungen sind daher dringend erforderlich.

Abstract

Introduction

Olfactory dysfunction has been reported to affect more than 200,000 patients a year in the USA. The aim of this survey was to obtain comparable epidemiological data and treatment information on olfactory dysfunction in German speaking countries.

Methods

Questionnaires were sent to all otorhinolaryngology departments in Germany, Austria and Switzerland; 52% of hospitals completed the survey.

Results

An average of 46 patients with olfactory dysfunction were treated per hospital every month. Hyp- and anosmia were most commonly caused by inflammatory diseases of the nose/paranasal sinuses (53%), respiratory dysfunction (19%), or postviral conditions (11%). Steroids were used most frequently for pharmacological treatment (topically 82%; orally 65%). Approximately one third of the clinics used B vitamins, or zinc; 80% of the hospitals performed surgery to treat underlying diseases. Acupuncture and smell training was used by approximately 20%.

Conclusion

A total of 79,000 patients per year are treated for olfactory dysfunction in German hospitals. The vast majority of these disorders (72%) is caused by sinunasal diseases. The quality control of therapeutic strategies is urgently needed.

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Danksagung

Die Autoren bedanken sich bei allen Teilnehmern der Umfrage für die interessierte Mitarbeit.

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Correspondence to M. Damm.

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Diese Studie wurde unterstützt durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft im Rahmen des SFB419.

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Damm, M., Temmel, A., Welge-Lüssen, A. et al. Riechstörungen. HNO 52, 112–120 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00106-003-0877-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00106-003-0877-z

Schlüsselwörter

  • Anosmie
  • Hyposmie
  • Kortison
  • Postviral
  • Vitamine

Keywords

  • Anosmia
  • Hyposmia
  • Nasal
  • Steroids
  • Surgery