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Der Hautarzt

, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp 439–445 | Cite as

HPV-induzierte anale Läsionen

  • U. Wieland
  • A. KreuterEmail author
Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Infektionen mit humanen Papillomviren (HPV) gehören zu den häufigsten sexuell übertragenen Infektionen des Menschen. Bisher wurden mehr als 200 komplett klassifizierte HPV-Typen beschrieben, von denen die zum Genus alpha gehörenden Typen überwiegend zu Infektionen des Anogenitalbereiches führen. Condylomata acuminata werden in mehr als 90 % durch die Low-risk-Typen HPV6 und HPV11 verursacht. Die Behandlung von Kondylomen kann in ablative (z. B. elektrokaustische Abtragung, oberflächliche Exzision oder Lasertherapie) und topische (z. B. Podophyllotoxin, Trichloressigsäure, Imiquimod) Verfahren eingeteilt werden und ist abhängig von der Größe, Lokalisation, Morphologie und anatomischen Region der Läsionen. Rezidive nach Therapie sind häufig. Aus diesem Grund spielen im klinischen Alltag Kombinationstherapien (z. B. topisch und ablativ) eine wichtige Rolle. Menschen mit HIV-Infektion, insbesondere HIV-positive Männer, die Sex mit Männern haben (MSM), haben ein stark erhöhtes Risiko für das Auftreten von analen Dysplasien und Analkarzinomen. Condylomata acuminata und ein großer Anteil von analen Dysplasien und Analkarzinomen sind durch prophylaktische HPV-Impfung verhinderbar.

Schlüsselwörter

Analkarzinom Condylomata acuminata HIV-Infektion Humanes Papillomvirus Anoskopie 

HPV-induced anal lesions

Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections belong to the most common sexually transmitted infections. To date, more than 200 completely classified HPV-types have been reported, and those belonging to the genus alpha predominantly infect the anogenital region. Condylomata acuminata are caused by the two low-risk types HPV6 and HPV11 in more than 90 % of cases. Treatment of genital warts might be either ablative (e.g. electrocautery, surgical excision, or laser therapy) or topical (e.g. podophyllotoxine, trichloroacetic acid, or imiquimod), and depends on the size, location, morphology and anatomical region. Recurrences after treatment are frequent. Therefore, combination therapies (e.g. topical and ablative) play an important role in daily routine. HIV-infected individuals, especially HIV-positive MSM, have a strongly increased risk for anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Condylomata acuminata and a large proportion of anal dysplasia and anal carcinoma are preventable by prophylactic HPV-vaccination.

Keywords

Anal carcinoma Condylomata acuminata HIV infections Human papillomavirus Anoscopy 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

U. Wieland und A. Kreuter geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

Alle Patienten, die über Bildmaterial oder anderweitige Angaben innerhalb des Manuskripts zu identifizieren sind, haben hierzu ihre schriftliche Einwilligung gegeben.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Virologie, Nationales Referenzzentrum für Papillom- und PolyomavirenUniversität zu KölnKölnDeutschland
  2. 2.Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und AllergologieHelios St. Elisabeth Klinik OberhausenOberhausenDeutschland

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