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National immunization programmes

  • Thomas Cherian
  • Carsten MantelEmail author
Leitthema

Abstract

Immunization represents one of the most cost-effective means to improve the health and well-being of populations and contribute to sustainable development. Since the inception of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, considerable gains have been made in improving access to vaccination in all countries. However, the full potential of vaccination is yet to be tapped.

Health system weaknesses have prevented universal access to vaccination and are a limitation for sustainable use of the increasing array of new vaccines. Fortunately, solutions exist and opportunities are available to strengthen immunization systems and to implement strategies to achieve the vision of universal access to vaccines. National immunization programmes are responsible for the management of immunization at the country level and cover a range of functions from establishing evidence-based policies to financing and procurement of vaccines, vaccine management and logistics, delivery of vaccination services and collection, as well as analysis and use of immunization data. Well-functioning immunization programmes that deliver high-quality services using tailored strategies to meet the needs of different population groups can reap the health benefits of high and equitable coverage with vaccines.

Keywords

Vaccine Expanded Programme on Immunization Immunization National programmes Health systems 

Nationale Impfprogramme

Zusammenfassung

Impfungen gehören zu den kosteneffektivsten Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der öffentlichen Gesundheit und tragen wesentlich zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung bei. Seit der Einführung des „erweiterten Impfprogramms“ (Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]) im Jahr 1974 wurden in allen Ländern weltweit erhebliche Verbesserungen im Zugang zu Impfungen erzielt. Das Potenzial, das Impfungen bieten, ist jedoch weiterhin nicht voll ausgeschöpft. Schwächen in Gesundheitssystemen verhindern den universellen Zugang zu Impfungen und die Einführung neuer Impfstoffe, die in zunehmender Anzahl zur Verfügung stehen. Doch es gibt vielfältige Möglichkeiten, nationale Impfprogramme zu stärken und globale Strategien für den universellen Zugang zu Impfstoffen in den Ländern umzusetzen. Nationale Impfprogramme decken eine Reihe von Funktionen ab. Zu diesen gehören die Erstellung evidenzbasierter Impfempfehlungen, die Finanzierung und Beschaffung von Impfstoffen, die Impfstofflogistik und die Organisation von Impfangeboten, darüber hinaus auch die Erhebung, Analyse und adäquate Nutzung von Daten. Gut funktionierende und qualitativ hochwertige Impfprogramme, die mit maßgeschneiderten Strategien auf die Bedürfnisse verschiedener Bevölkerungsgruppen eingehen, können durch das Erreichen eines ausreichend hohen und gerecht verteilten Impfschutzes zur nachhaltigen Verbesserung der Gesundheit in der Bevölkerung beitragen.

Schlüsselwörter

Impfung Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Immunisierung Nationale Programme Gesundheitssysteme 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge access to unpublished data and graphics provided by the department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization for preparing this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

T. Cherian and C. Mantel declare that they have no competing interests.

For this article no studies with human participants or animals were performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MMGH ConsultingZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Abteilung für InfektionsepidemiologieRobert Koch-InstitutBerlinGermany

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