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Health Literacy bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

Ein Überblick über den aktuellen Forschungsstand

Health literacy in childhood and adolescence

An overview and current state of research

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Health Literacy ist ein multidisziplinäres Konzept, das in Europa zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnt in den Bereichen Krankheitsversorgung, Gesundheitsförderung und Prävention sowie in der Gesundheitspolitik. Theoretische Konzept- und Methodenentwicklungen, evidenzbasierte Forschung und Policy-Dokumente adressieren vornehmlich Erwachsene, Kinder und Jugendliche sind eine bisher ebenso marginalisierte Zielgruppe von Wissenschaft und Politik wie das Bildungs- und Erziehungssystem.

Ziel

Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrages ist es, neben dem Blick auf den aktuellen Forschungsstand, einige der Desiderate der Diskussion über Health Literacy im Kindes- und Jugendalter zu beschreiben.

Material und Methoden

Die Ergebnisse wurden auf Grundlage einer Literaturrecherche erstellt.

Ergebnisse

Das Fehlen konzeptioneller Zugänge hinsichtlich alters- und entwicklungsstufenangepasster Modelle und von Prävalenzdaten erschwert den theoretischen und methodischen Zugang zum Thema „Health Literacy im Kindes- und Jugendalter“. Hier herrscht dringender Forschungsbedarf. Zudem könnte schulische Gesundheitsförderung eine effektive Plattform sein, um Health Literacy bereits ab den frühen Lebensphasen zu fördern.

Diskussion

Neben der Anschlussfähigkeit der benachbarten Literacy-Perspektive, der Nähe zu anderen Konzepten der Gesundheitsförderung und der Bedeutung des schulischen Settings gehören in grundlagen- und anwendungsorientierter Hinsicht die Analyse und Erforschung der Determinanten von Health Literacy, von Health Literacy als Determinante von Gesundheit sowie die systematisch implementierte Umsetzung von Health-Literacy-Programmen zu den Bereichen, in denen Forschungsbedarf besteht.

Abstract

Background

Health literacy is multidisciplinary and brings together many concepts, and is of increasing importance for disease protection, health promotion, and prevention, and for health policy within Europe. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, adults are mostly the target audience, whereas children and adolescents, in addition to education and schools, have so far been neglected.

Objectives

The aim is to give an overview of the state of the art in childhood and adolescence health literacy research, and to identify any existing gaps.

Materials

A literature review has been performed to identify the relevant research data.

Results

Limitations in developmental and age-adjusted conceptual frameworks and a lack of prevalence data, however, significantly impede our understanding of the meaning of health literacy in children and adolescents. School health promotion programmes could serve as a platform for effective health literacy education, beginning in early childhood.

Conclusions

In addition to compatibility with a broader literacy perspective, the proximity to several theories of health promotion and defined concepts, and the importance of school health promotion and education, it is vital to focus research on current gaps in the understanding of health literacy determinants, health literacy as a determinant of health, and in terms of the design and systematic implementation of intervention programmes.

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Danksagungen

Der Dank gilt allen beteiligten Personen und allen Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern im Zentrum für Prävention und Intervention im Kindes- und Jugendalter (ZPI) an der Universität Bielefeld.

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Okan, O., Pinheiro, P., Zamora, P. et al. Health Literacy bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Bundesgesundheitsbl. 58, 930–941 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-015-2199-1

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-015-2199-1

Schlüsselwörter

  • Health Literacy
  • Kinder und Jugendliche
  • Determinanten von Health Literacy
  • Gesundheitserziehung
  • Gesundheitsförderung

Keywords

  • Health literacy
  • Childhood and adolescence
  • Determinants of health literacy
  • Health education
  • Health promotion