Gesundheitskompetenz/Health Literacy

Das Konzept und seine Operationalisierung

Health literacy

An introduction to the concept and its measurement

Zusammenfassung

Gesundheitskompetenz (engl. Health Literacy) fand in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten vielfältige Beachtung. Anfänglich verstanden als individuelle Fähigkeit, krankheitsrelevante Informationen in der von medizinischen Experten vorgesehenen Form zu verstehen, entwickelte sich in relativ kurzer Zeit ein breites Verständnis von Gesundheitskompetenz als einer personengebundenen Ressource für gesundheitsförderliches Handeln in Alltagssituationen und klinischen Kontexten. Gesundheitskompetenz wird heute - je nach Anwendungskontext - unterschiedlich definiert und operationalisiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über aktuelle Definitionen von Gesundheitskompetenz, liefert am Beispiel der soziologischen Perspektive von Structure-Agency einen kurzen Einstieg in theoretische Grundlagen und berichtet über den Stand der Operationalisierungen von Gesundheitskompetenz. Stärken und Schwächen der derzeitigen Ansätze zum Konzept und zur Messung von Gesundheitskompetenz werden skizziert. Der vorliegende Artikel möchte so einen Beitrag leisten zur zielgerichteten Weiterentwicklung des Konzepts, insbesondere im Bereich Public Health und Gesundheitsförderung.

Abstract

Over the last 20 years, health literacy (German: Gesundheitskompetenz/health competency) has become a popular concept in research and health policy. Initially defined as an individual’s ability to understand medical information, the definition has quickly expanded to describe individual-based resources for actions or conduct relevant to health, in different socio-cultural or clinical contexts. Today, researchers and practice experts can draw on a wide variety of definitions and measurements. This article provides an overview of the definitions, briefly introduces the “structure and agency” approach as an example of theorizing health literacy, and shows different types of operationalization. The article presents the strengths and shortcomings of the available concepts and measures and provides starting points for future research in public health and health promotion.

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Correspondence to Prof. Dr. Thomas Abel.

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T. Abel und K. Sommerhalder geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Abel, T., Sommerhalder, K. Gesundheitskompetenz/Health Literacy. Bundesgesundheitsbl. 58, 923–929 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-015-2198-2

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Gesundheitskompetenz
  • Theorie
  • Messung
  • Public Health
  • Soziale Ungleichheit

Keywords

  • Health literacy
  • Theory
  • Measurement
  • Public health
  • Social inequality