Intersexualität und Differences of Sex Development (DSD)

Grundlagen, Diagnostik und Betreuungsansätze

Intersex and differences of sex development

Background, diagnostics, and concepts of care

Zusammenfassung

Intersexualität bezeichnet eine angeborene Inkongruenz von chromosomalem Geschlecht, Keimdrüsen und genitalem Phänotyp. Eine typische klinische Situation, wie sich Intersexualität präsentiert, ist das uneindeutige Genitale bei Geburt. Ursächlich sind chromosomale, genetische und hormonelle Faktoren. Diagnostik, Beratung und Therapie sollten durch ein erfahrenes multidisziplinäres Team durchgeführt werden. Dabei stehen medizinische, aber auch psychologische, soziale und ethische Belange im Fokus. Intersexualität wird in der internationalen Literatur als „Disorders of Sex Development“ („DSD“) bezeichnet. Um zu verdeutlichen, dass aus Patientensicht nicht notwendigerweise bzw. nicht in allen Aspekten ein Krankheitswert besteht, wird von einigen Autoren von „Differences of Sex Development“ gesprochen.

Abstract

Intersex is an inherited incongruence of chromosomal, gonadal, and genital sexual characteristics. A typical clinical situation of intersex is the ambiguous genitalia in the newborn. Diagnostics, counseling, and therapy should be offered by specialized multidisciplinary health-care teams. The focus is not only on medical issues but also on psychological, social, and ethical aspects. In the international literature, intersex is now termed “disorders of sex development” (DSD). Alternatively, some authors use “differences of sex development” to underline that patients do not necessarily feel they have a “disorder” but rather a “difference” of sex development compared with normal sex development.

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Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt. P.-M. Holterhus gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Correspondence to Prof. Dr. P.-M. Holterhus.

Additional information

Der vorliegende Beitrag ist aus der Perspektive eines Kinderarztes geschrieben. Daher stehen Belange erwachsener Menschen mit Intersexualität nicht primär im Fokus. Vielfach werden für Begrifflichkeiten oder Berufsgruppen männliche Formen verwendet. Dieses erfolgt aus Vereinfachungsgründen zur besseren Lesbarkeit des Textes, ist jedoch keinesfalls diskriminierend gemeint.

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Holterhus, P. Intersexualität und Differences of Sex Development (DSD). Bundesgesundheitsbl. 56, 1686–1694 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-013-1850-y

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Intersexualität
  • Intersex
  • Disorders of Sex Development
  • Differences of Sex Development
  • DSD

Keywords

  • Intersexuality
  • Intersex
  • Disorders of sex development
  • Differences of sex development
  • DSD