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Welche Effekte hat körperliche Bewegung auf das Krebsrisiko und auf den Krankheitsverlauf nach einer Krebsdiagnose?

Effects of physical activity on cancer risk and disease progression after cancer diagnosis

Zusammenfassung

Zahlreiche epidemiologische Studien zeigen, dass regelmäßige körperliche Bewegung das Risiko für Kolonkrebs überzeugend, für Endometrium- und postmenopausalen Brustkrebs wahrscheinlich und für prämenopausalen Brustkrebs, Prostata-, Lungen- und Pankreaskrebs vermutlich verringert. Das Ausmaß der relativen Risikoreduktion liegt zwischen 10 und 30%. Absolut gehen 9 bis 19% der häufigsten Tumore auf einen Mangel an hinreichender Bewegung zurück. Damit weist körperliche Bewegung als veränderbarer Lebensstilfaktor ein substanzielles Potenzial für die bevölkerungsbezogene Krebsprävention auf. Gegenwärtige Empfehlungen legen nahe, täglich mindestens 30 bis 60 Minuten moderat körperlich aktiv zu sein. Auch in der Krebsnachsorge gewinnt der Faktor Bewegung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Es gilt als wahrscheinlich, dass körperliche Bewegung in fast allen Stadien einer Krebserkrankung möglich, sicher und sogar empfehlenswert ist. Kontrollierte und randomisierte Studien deuten darauf hin, dass negative krankheits- und therapiebedingte Symptome wie Fatigue, Schlafstörungen und Depressionen, die teilweise jahrelang die Lebensqualität der Betroffenen einschränken, durch körperliche Bewegung reduzierbar sind. Zu den Effekten körperlicher Aktivität auf die krankheitsspezifische Mortalität und die Gesamtmortalität liegen noch keine klinischen Studien vor; erste Beobachtungsstudien haben jedoch Risikoreduktionen bei Brust-, Darm- und Prostatakrebs gezeigt.

Abstract

Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that regular physical activity convincingly reduces risk for colon cancer, probably for endometrium and postmenopausal breast cancer, and possibly for premenopausal breast, prostate, lung, and pancreas cancer. Relative risk reductions range from 10–30%. On the absolute scale about 9–19% of the most frequent cancers can be attributed to a lack of sufficient physical activity. Thus, exercise, as a modifiable health behavior, has a strong potential for primary cancer prevention. Current recommendations call for at least 30–60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. Physical activity is also increasingly gaining importance in cancer treatment and is now considered to be feasible, safe, and even recommended in almost all stages of disease. Randomized-controlled trials show that disease- and treatment-related symptoms, such as fatigue, sleep disorders, and depression which sometimes limit quality of life in cancer patients over years, can be reduced by physical activity. For disease-specific and total mortality, clinical studies are not yet available. However, preliminary observational studies with breast, colon, and prostate cancer patients show risk reductions.

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Steindorf, K., Schmidt, M. & Ulrich, C. Welche Effekte hat körperliche Bewegung auf das Krebsrisiko und auf den Krankheitsverlauf nach einer Krebsdiagnose?. Bundesgesundheitsbl. 55, 10–16 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-011-1385-z

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Bewegung
  • Krebs
  • Körperliche Aktivität
  • Krankheitsverlauf
  • Prävention

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Cancer
  • Physical activity
  • Disease progression
  • Prevention