Umweltbedingte Einflussfaktoren

Möglichkeiten und Barrieren für ein gesundes Ernährungs- und Bewegungsverhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen

Environmental factors

Opportunities and barriers for physical activity and healthy eating among children and adolescents

Zusammenfassung

Obwohl der genetische Einfluss eine wichtige Rolle für die Entwicklung von Adipositas spielt, lässt der dramatische Anstieg ihrer Prävalenz in den letzten Jahren vermuten, dass die Lebensumwelt einen ebenso großen Einfluss hat. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Ergebnisse einer Literaturübersicht über Möglichkeiten und Barrieren in der Lebensumwelt für ein gesundes Ernährungs- und Bewegungsverhalten – beides Faktoren, die die Adipositasepidemie unter Kindern und Jugendlichen beeinflussen – aufgezeigt. Obwohl es deutliche Belege für den Einfluss der Lebensumwelt auf den Lebensstil und damit auf die Ausprägung von Adipositas gibt, liegen nur wenige Hinweise über effektive Strategien zur Veränderung dieser obesogenen Umweltbedingungen vor. Interventionsprogramme, die umweltbedingte Einflussfaktoren verändern wollen, um kindlicher Adipositas entgegenzuwirken, könnten auf zusätzliche Angebote von Sporteinrichtungen und gesunden Mahlzeiten in der Schule (zum Beispiel auf ein Obstangebot), auf die Sicherheit und Verfügbarkeit von Fuß- und Fahrradwegen sowie auf mehr Spielflächen zielen oder die gesellschaftliche Wertung von Gewicht, Ernährung oder Bewegung beeinflussen. Um die gewünschten Veränderungen der Lebensumwelt langfristig aufrechtzuerhalten (zum Beispiel das Verbot von Softdrinks an Schulen), ist jedoch ein gewisser Grad an Institutionalisierung unterstützender Einrichtungen erforderlich. Das Design und die Durchführung von Studien zur genauen Bestimmung umweltbedingter Einflussfaktoren auf obesogenes Verhalten müssen verbessert werden, um den Erfolg großflächig angelegter Interventionsprogramme sicherzustellen.

Abstract

While genetic factors play a role in the development of obesity, its dramatic increase in prevalence over the past few years strongly suggests an important environmental role. The results of a review on environmental opportunities and barriers for physical activity and dietary intake influencing the obesity epidemic among children and adolescents are presented. Although evidence clearly shows the impact of the environment on obesity-related lifestyle factors among children, evidence for effective strategies combating this obesogenic environment is scarce. Interventions aiming to change environmental factors to reduce childhood obesity may include providing extra sporting facilities and healthy foods/meals at school (e.g., provision of fruit), efforts to improve safety and accessibility of walking, cycling, and play areas, while at the same time attempting to influence social values attached to weight, food, or physical activity. Some level of institutionalization of systems that support the desired changes is required to sustain long-term environmental changes (e.g., ban of softdrinks at school). Better-designed and -conducted research on the true importance of environmental factors for obesogenic behavioral change is needed to achieve success of large-scale environmental change interventions.

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Correspondence to I. Huybrechts.

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Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von C. Buck, Bremer Institut für Präventionsforschung.

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Huybrechts, I., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Buck, C. et al. Umweltbedingte Einflussfaktoren. Bundesgesundheitsbl. 53, 716–724 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-010-1085-0

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Kinder
  • Jugendliche
  • Adipositas
  • Bewegung
  • Ernährung
  • Lebensumwelt

Keywords

  • Children
  • Adolescents
  • Obesity
  • Physical activity
  • Diet
  • Environment