Psychische Belastung, Immunfunktionen und Krankheitsentwicklungen Die psychoneuroimmunologische Perspektive

Psychoneuroimmunology. The relationship between stress, immune system and health

Zusammenfassung

Psychoneuroimmunologische Forschung als interdisziplinäre Wissenschaft zeigt, dass klinisch relevante Zusammenhänge zwischen psychischer Belastung und Krankheitsentwicklung bestehen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die wechselseitige Kommunikation der primären informationsverarbeitenden und übermittelnden körperlichen Systeme (Nerven-, Hormon- und Immunsystem) sowie deren Beeinträchtigung durch chronische Stressoren gemäß dem Konzept von Allostatic Load vorgestellt sowie die erhöhte Infektanfälligkeit, die verminderte Responserate nach Impfungen und die Verlängerung der Wundheilung unter psychischer Belastung beschrieben. Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Dysregulation der Stressreaktionssysteme bei Brustkrebs und anderen onkologischen Erkrankungen sowie bei multipler Sklerose für deren Ausprägung oder Progression bedeutsam sein könnte. Entsprechende Zusammenhänge können heute als gut belegt gelten und sollten daher in Präventions- und Therapiekonzepten Berücksichtigung finden.

Abstract

Interdisciplinary psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) research increasingly demonstrates clinically relevant interrelations between psychological stressors and the onset or progression of chronic diseases. Disturbances of the bi-directional interaction between the nervous system, the immune system and the endocrine system have been hypothesized to be implicated in several diseases. Here, we review evidence from psychoneuroimmunology within the theoretical framework of allostatic load to conceptualize some of these associations. Interdisciplinary PNI research investigating the importance of psychological stress for the higher incidence of infections, decreased responses to vaccinations and delayed wound healing is reviewed. Furthermore, the literature supporting similar associations with regard to progression of oncological diseases and autoimmune disorders is reviewed with a focus on breast cancer and multiple sclerosis. The accumulating evidence regarding the importance of neuroendocrine-immune interaction in these diseases may thus lead to novel insights into pathogenetic mechanisms and could contribute to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies.

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Correspondence to PD Dr. med. Dr. phil. Dipl.-Psych. K.-H. Schulz.

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Schulz, KH., Gold, S. Psychische Belastung, Immunfunktionen und Krankheitsentwicklungen Die psychoneuroimmunologische Perspektive . Bundesgesundheitsbl. 49, 759–772 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-006-0006-8

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Stress
  • Psychoneuroimmunologie
  • Infektionserkrankungen
  • Impfungen
  • Brustkrebs
  • Multiple Sklerose
  • Wundheilung

Keywords

  • Stress
  • Psychoneuroimmunology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Vaccinations
  • Breast cancer
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Wound healing