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The impact of pre-injury direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin in geriatric G-60 trauma patients

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Abstract

Purpose

Pre-injury oral anticoagulants are associated with worse outcomes in geriatric (G-60) trauma patients, but there are limited data comparing warfarin with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). We sought to compare outcomes in G-60 trauma patients taking pre-injury DOACs vs. warfarin.

Methods

All trauma patients, age ≥60 who were admitted to the hospital and taking an oral anticoagulant pre-injury were retrospectively identified. Patients were excluded if their reason for admission was a suicide attempt or penetrating extremity injury. Outcome measures included blood transfusions, hospital LOS, and mortality. A second analysis was performed, whereby patients were matched using ISS and age.

Results

There were 3,941 patients identified; 331 had documentation of anticoagulant use, pre-injury (warfarin, n = 237; DOAC, n = 94). Demographics were similar, but ISS [9 (4–13) vs. 8 (4–9), p = .027], initial INR [2.2 (1.8–2.9) vs. 1.2 (1.1–1.5), p < .001], and the use of pharmacologic reversal agents (48 vs. 14%, p < .001) were higher in the warfarin group. There was no difference in the use of blood transfusions (24 vs. 17%, p = .164) or mortality (5.9 vs. 4.3%, p = .789) between warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively. However, LOS was longer in the warfarin group [5 (3–7.5) vs. 4 (2–6.3) days, p = .02]. Matched analysis showed no difference in blood transfusions (23 vs. 17%, p = .276), mortality (2.1 vs. 4.3%, p = .682) or LOS [5 (3–7) vs. 4 (2–6.3) days, p = .158] between warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively.

Conclusion

Pre-injury DOACs are not associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to warfarin in G-60 trauma patients. Higher use of pharmacologic reversal agents with warfarin may be related to differences in mechanism of action and effect on INR.

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Correspondence to A. J. Mangram.

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Barletta, J.F., Hall, S., Sucher, J.F. et al. The impact of pre-injury direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin in geriatric G-60 trauma patients. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 43, 445–449 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-017-0772-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00068-017-0772-z

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