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Hypertonie und Ernährung

Positionspapier der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Ernährung (ÖGE)

Hypertension and nutrition

Position paper of the Austrian Nutrition Society

Zusammenfassung

Hypertonie gehört zu den häufigsten Ursachen der Gesamtmortalität und ist zu einem hohen Anteil für Todesfälle durch Schlaganfälle, aber auch durch koronare Herzkrankheit verantwortlich. Die krankhafte Erhöhung des Blutdrucks auf Werte, die zu einer Schädigung des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems führen, bezeichnet man als (arterielle) Hypertonie. Blutdruckwerte ab 140/90 mmHg (systolisch/diastolisch) wurden als hypertensiv definiert. Neben genetischer Prädisposition, Alter und Geschlecht spielen das Körpergewicht und Lebensstilfaktoren wie Bewegung und Ernährung eine wichtige Rolle in der Entstehung der Hypertonie. Lebensstiloptimierung zählt zu den wichtigen Maßnahmen sowohl in der Prävention als auch in der Therapie der Hypertonie. In diesem Artikel werden die Ernährungsfaktoren diskutiert, die mit Hypertonie assoziiert sind. Hinsichtlich der Ernährung haben insbesondere eine Reduktion der Kochsalzzufuhr, eine kaliumreiche Kost, Gewichtsmanagement, die DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)-Diät, ein Ernährungsmuster, das auf einer obst-, gemüse- und getreidereichen Ernährung mit Milch und Milchprodukten mit niedrigem Fettgehalt basiert, sowie ein, wenn überhaupt, nur moderater Alkoholkonsum einen günstigen Einfluss auf den Blutdruck. Basierend auf der wissenschaftlichen Literatur werden in diesem Artikel Ernährungsempfehlungen bei Hypertonie erstellt.

Abstract

Arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of overall mortality and is responsible for a high proportion of deaths due to stroke as well as coronary heart disease. It is defined as a pathological elevation of blood pressure which leads to damage of the cardiovascular system. Cut-off values for hypertension are defined as blood pressure levels higher than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic). In the pathogenesis of hypertension genetic factors, age and sex play a role, as well as body weight and lifestyle factors, such as nutrition and physical exercise. Lifestyle optimization reduces the risk of developing hypertension and contributes to the treatment in patients with established hypertension. Nutritional factors associated with hypertension are discussed in this article and recommendations regarding diet are made based on the literature. The nutritional factors with the highest impact on blood pressure are reduction of salt intake, a diet rich in potassium, weight management, the DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension) diet and moderation of alcohol consumption. Salt restriction is essential in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Based on the literature, in this article recommendations for nutrition and hypertension are given.

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Correspondence to C. Ekmekcioglu.

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In Kooperation mit Prof. Watschinger und Prof. Slany von der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Hypertensiologie.

Hinweis und Danksagung

Das Manuskript wurde von Univ.-Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Elmadfa, Präsident der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Ernährung (ÖGE) und Präsident der IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), in Auftrag gegeben. Die Autoren bedanken sich bei ihm und bei Fr. Mag. Alexandra Hofer, Geschäftsführerin der ÖGE, für ihre Unterstützung.

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Dorner, T., Genser, D., Krejs, G. et al. Hypertonie und Ernährung. Herz 38, 153–162 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00059-012-3613-1

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Ernährung
  • Hypertonie
  • Kochsalz
  • Kalium
  • Gewichtsreduktion
  • DASH-Diät

Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Hypertension
  • Common salt
  • Potassium
  • Weight management
  • DASH-diet