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Testosterone suppression impacts craniofacial growth structures during puberty

An animal study

Testosteronsuppression beeinflusst kraniofaziale Wachstumsstrukturen während der Pubertät

Eine tierexperimentelle Studie

Abstract

Aim

Hormones play a crucial role in growth development; however, the impact of testosterone suppression (TS) on craniofacial growth during puberty remains inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of TS during puberty on cephalometric measurements and histological characteristics of facial growth centers.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six heterogenic Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into experimental orchiectomy (ORX) and control (sham) groups. At an age of 23 days (prepubertal stage), orchiectomy and placebo surgery were performed. Cephalometric measurements were performed via lateral cephalograms during and after puberty. The animals were euthanized at an age of 45 days (pubertal stage) and 73 days (postpubertal stage). Histological slices of the growth centers (condyle, premaxilla, and median palatine suture) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and sirius red. Student’s t or Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare linear and angular cephalometric measurements across groups (α error = 5%).

Results

Linear and angular measurements were statistically different in ORX animals (cranial bones, maxilla, and mandible) at 45 days and 73 days. Condylar histology showed a decrease in prechondroblast differentiation and a delay of mineralization in ORX animals. Vascularization of the medium palatine suture was lower in the ORX group at 45 days. Type I and III collagen fiber synthesis was lower in the ORX groups. In the premaxillary suture, collagen fibers were better organized in the sham groups.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that testosterone suppression affects craniofacial growth during puberty.

Zusammenfassung

Ziel

Hormone sind von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Wachstumsentwicklung; die Auswirkungen einer Testosteronsuppression (TS) auf das kraniofaziale Wachstum während der Pubertät sind jedoch noch nicht eindeutig geklärt. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Auswirkungen einer TS während der Pubertät auf kephalometrische Maße und histologische Parameter der fazialen Wachstumszentren zu untersuchen.

Material und Methoden

Heterogene männliche Wistar-Ratten (n = 36) wurden nach dem Zufallsprinzip einer experimentellen Orchiektomie (ORX) und einer Kontrollgruppe (Sham) zugeteilt. Im Alter von 23 Tagen (präpubertäres Stadium) wurden die Orchiektomien bzw. die Placebooperationen durchgeführt. Während und nach der Pubertät wurden kephalometrische Messungen mithilfe von lateralen Kephalogrammen durchgeführt. Die Tiere wurden im Alter von 45 (pubertäres Stadium) und 73 Tagen (postpubertäres Stadium) eingeschläfert. Histologische Schnitte der Wachstumszentren (Kondylen, Prämaxilla und mediane Gaumennaht) wurden mit Hämatoxylin-Eosin und Siriusrot gefärbt. Zum Vergleich der linearen und angulären kephalometrischen Messungen zwischen den Gruppen wurden der Student-t-Test bzw. der Mann-Whitney-U-Test verwendet (α-Fehler = 5 %).

Ergebnisse

Die linearen und angulären Messungen waren bei ORX-Tieren (Schädelknochen, Ober- und Unterkiefer) nach 45 und 73 Tagen statistisch unterschiedlich. Die Histologie der Kondylen zeigte eine Abnahme der Prächondroblastendifferenzierung und eine Verzögerung der Mineralisierung bei den ORX-Tieren. Die Vaskularisierung der mittleren Gaumennaht war in der ORX-Gruppe nach 45 Tagen geringer ausgeprägt, ebenso wie die Synthese von Typ-I- und Typ-III-Kollagenfasern. In der Prämaxillarnaht waren die Kollagenfasern in den Sham-Gruppen besser organisiert.

Schlussfolgerungen

Unsere Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Testosteronsuppression das kraniofaziale Wachstum während der Pubertät beeinflusst.

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Acknowledgements

We thank to Minas Gerais Research Foundation (FAPEMIG) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for their support

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Correspondence to Daniela Silva Barroso de Oliveira DDS, MS, PhD.

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Conflict of interest

C.L.B. Reis, M. de Fátima Pereira Madureira, C.L.R. Cunha, W.C.R. Junior, T.H. Araújo, A. Esteves, M.B.S. Stuani, C. Kirschneck, P. Proff, M.A.N. Matsumoto, E.C. Küchler and D. Silva Barroso de Oliveira declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

The Local Ethics Committee in The Use of Animals of the Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil, approved this experiment (protocol: 024/2019). All experimental procedures were previously checked by a veterinarian.

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Reis, C.L.B., de Fátima Pereira Madureira, M., Cunha, C.L.R. et al. Testosterone suppression impacts craniofacial growth structures during puberty. J Orofac Orthop (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00056-021-00373-4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00056-021-00373-4

Keywords

  • Craniofacial growth
  • Testosterone
  • Maxilla
  • Mandible
  • Orchiectomy

Schlüsselwörter

  • Kraniofaziales Wachstum
  • Testosteron
  • Oberkiefer
  • Unterkiefer
  • Orchiektomie