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Evaluation of maxillary arch morphology in children with unilaterally impacted incisors via three-dimensional analysis of digital dental casts: a controlled study

Evaluierung der Morphologie des Oberkieferbogens bei Kindern mit unilateral impaktierten Inzisiven mittels 3D-Analyse digitaler dentaler Abformungen: Eine kontrollierte Studie

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The purpose of this work was to analyze variations in maxillary arch dimensions in subjects presenting unilaterally impacted maxillary permanent central incisors compared with a control group of subjects without eruption anomalies.


A group of 23 Caucasian children [8 females and 15 males, mean age 9.7 years, standard deviation (SD) 1.6 years] displaying unilaterally impacted maxillary permanent central incisors (impacted incisor group: IIG) were compared with a control group (CG) of 23 subjects (9 females; 14 males, mean age 8.8 years, SD 1.9 years) presenting no eruption disorders. Pretreatment dental casts were taken from each subject and the upper arch was scanned using a three-dimensional scanner. Linear measurements were taken on each digital model to analyze maxillary arch dimensions. Significant between-group differences were tested with the Student’s t test (p < 0.05).


The transverse and sagittal upper-arch measurements were significantly smaller in the IIG than in the CG. In particular, the anterior arch was 1.35 mm shorter in the IIG, while intercanine width was decreased by 2.51 mm on the impacted side.


Children revealing unilaterally impacted maxillary central incisors demonstrated a significantly constricted maxillary transverse width and shorter arch on the impacted side compared with subjects with no eruption disorders.



Die Zielsetzung der Studie war die Analyse dimensionaler Variationen in den Oberkieferbögen von Kindern mit einseitig impaktierten permanenten zentralen Inzisiven im Vergleich mit einer Kontrollgruppe ohne Durchbruchsanomalien.


Eine Gruppe von 23 kaukasischen Kindern [8 Mädchen, 15 Jungen, Durchschnittsalter 9,7, Standardabweichung (SD) 1,6 Jahre] mit einseitig impaktierten bleibenden zentralen Inzisiven (“impacted incisor group”, IIG) wurde verglichen mit einer Kontrollgruppe (“control group”, CG; 9 Mädchen, 14 Jungen, Durchschnittsalter 8,8, SD 1,9 Jahre) ohne Durchbruchsstörungen. Vor der Behandlung wurden von jedem Individuum Zahnabdrücke erstellt, der obere Bogen wurde dreidimensional gescannt. Zur Analyse der Oberkieferbogendimensionen wurde jedes digitale Modell linear vermessen. Signifikante Differenzen (p < 0,05) wurden mit dem Student-t-Test überprüft.


In der IIG erwiesen sich die transversalen und die sagittalen Messungen als signifikant geringer als in der CG. Vor allem der vordere Bogen war 1,35 mm kürzer in der IIG, während die intercanine Distanz auf der Seite der Impaktierung 2,51 mm geringer war.


Bei Kindern mit einseitig impaktierten zentralen Inzisiven im Oberkiefer zeigten sich im Vergleich mit Kindern ohne Eruptionsanomalie eine signifikant verengte Oberkieferbreite und ein kürzerer Bogen auf der Seite der Impaktierung.

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Correspondence to Lorenzo Franchi.

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Conflict of interest

Chiara Pavoni, Lorenzo Franchi, Marco Buongiorno, and Paola Cozza have no conflict of interest.

All studies on humans described in the present manuscript were carried out with the approval of the responsible ethics committee and in accordance with national law and the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (in its current, revised form). Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in studies. In the case of underage patients, consent was obtained from a parent or legal guardian.

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L. Franchi: DDS, PhD.

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Pavoni, C., Franchi, L., Buongiorno, M. et al. Evaluation of maxillary arch morphology in children with unilaterally impacted incisors via three-dimensional analysis of digital dental casts: a controlled study. J Orofac Orthop 77, 16–21 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00056-015-0003-3

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  • Impacted incisor
  • Maxillary morphology
  • Digital dental casts
  • Pediatric dentistry
  • Mixed dentition


  • Impaktierter Inzisivus
  • Maxillamorphologie
  • Digitale Zahnabformung
  • Pädiatrische Zahnheilkunde
  • Gemischte Dentition