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Raspberry ketone supplements provided to immature male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), increase the amount of volatiles in rectal glands

Abstract

Raspberry ketone (RK) supplements provided together with sugar and yeast hydrolysate accelerate sexual maturation and increase mating success of Queensland fruit fly (‘Qfly’) males. However, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced mating ability are currently unknown. Volatiles are an important element of Qfly sexual calling and courtship and so changes in volatiles quantity or quality may be involved, and the present study investigated this possibility. Flies were fed a diet of sugar only (S) or yeast hydrolysate mixed with sugar (YH + S) (1:3) that contained 0% RK (control) and 5% RK (treated) for 2 days after emergence. Volatile compounds were extracted from rectal glands when flies were 6, 8, 10, 20, and 30 days old. Males fed on RK exhibited a significant increase in total volatile production in rectal glands compared to RK-unfed males (control). Males fed on RK with YH + S produced significantly higher amount of volatiles than males fed on RK with sugar only. Males fed on YH + S diet produced more volatiles in the presence of RK compared to males fed on YH + S diet only. Two compounds, N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide and N-(3-methylbutyl)propanamide were dominant in endogenously produced rectal gland volatiles comprising ca. more than 90% of the total amount in both RK-fed and control males. Considering exogenous and endogenous compounds together, unaltered RK was dominant along with these two endogenous compounds in RK-fed males in rectal gland until 30 days of age in both diet groups.

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Acknowledgements

Authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Professor Phil Taylor, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, who helped with valuable comments during designing the experiment and preparing the manuscript. Authors are also grateful to Associate Professor Suk Ling Wee, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Dan Ryan, Horticulture Innovation Australia Limited, for helping in preparing this manuscript with valuable comments. Authors are thankful to the staff at New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, especially Solomon Balagawi, who generously provided pupae. This research was conducted as part of the SITplus collaborative fruit fly program. Project Raising Qfly Sterile Insect Technique to World Standard (HG14033) is funded by the Hort Frontiers Fruit Fly Fund, part of the Hort Frontiers strategic partnership initiative developed by Hort Innovation, with co-investment from Macquarie University and contributions from the Australian Government. HA was supported by a Macquarie University Research Excellence Scholarship (MQRES).

Funding

This research was conducted as part of the SITplus collaborative fruit fly program. Project Raising Qfly Sterile Insect Technique to World Standard (HG14033) is funded by the Hort Frontiers Fruit Fly Fund, part of the Hort Frontiers strategic partnership initiative developed by Hort Innovation, with co-investment from Macquarie University and contributions from the Australian Government. HA was supported by a Macquarie University Research Excellence Scholarship (MQRES).

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Humayra Akter planned and designed experiment. All authors conducted research experiment. Humayra Akter wrote the manuscript, Jeanneth Pérez and Soo Jean Park provided inputs to prepare this manuscript. Humayra Akter analyzed data.

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Akter, H., Pérez, J. & Park, S.J. Raspberry ketone supplements provided to immature male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), increase the amount of volatiles in rectal glands. Chemoecology 31, 89–99 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00049-020-00333-1

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Keywords

  • Raspberry ketone
  • Volatiles
  • Rectal glands
  • Immature males
  • Queensland fruit fly