Medicinal Chemistry Research

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 3307–3314 | Cite as

Bioguided chemical characterization of the antiproliferative fraction of edible pseudo bulbs of Malaxis acuminata D. Don by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS

  • Deepika Singh
  • Sunil Kumar
  • Renu Pandey
  • Mohammad Hasanain
  • Jayanta Sarkar
  • Brijesh Kumar
Original Research


The edible pseudo bulbs of Malaxis acuminata D. Don are used as a constituent of an Indian drug ‘Astavarga’ and in several marketed Ayurvedic formulations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract and its fractions of the pseudo bulbs of Malaxis acuminata and to develop the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS method for rapid de-replication of the phytoconstituents present in the bioactive fraction. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, such as A549 (non-small cell lung cancer cells), DU145 (human prostate carcinoma), DLD1 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) using the sulphorhodamine B assay. Eleven compounds including two flavonoids, three bisphenanthrene compounds, three stillbenoid compounds, two phenanthrene derivatives, and one prenylated benzoic acid were identified and characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS analysis along with the isolation of three steroidal compounds by column chromatography. The present investigation indicated that pseudo bulbs of Malaxis acuminata possessed a potent antiproliferative activity. LC–MS/MS analysis provided rapid dereplication of compounds, which might be responsible for its antiproliferative activity.


Malaxis acuminata Antiproliferative activity HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS 



The authors are thankful to the director, Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), Lucknow and grateful to SAIF, CSIR-CDRI, Lucknow, India for providing instrumentation facility. This work was financially supported by the project BSC0106i. The authors acknowledge Dr. K. R. Arya, Botany Division, CDRI, Lucknow for authentication of the plant material and Ms. Pooja Soni for technical assistance. CDRI communication number is 9551.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

44_2017_2023_MOESM1_ESM.docx (78 kb)
Supplementary Figures


  1. Adaramoye OA, Sarkar J, Singh N, Meena S, Changkija B, Yadav PP, Kanojiya S, Sinha S (2011) Antiproliferative action of Xylopia aethiopica fruit extract on human cervical cancer cells. Phytother Res 25:1558–1563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai L, Kato T, Inoue K, Yamaki M, Takagi S (1991) Blestrianol A, B and C, biphenanthrenes from Bletilla striata. Phytochemistry 30:2733–2735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen H, Huang Y, Huang J, Lin L, Wei G (2017) Gigantol attenuates the proliferation of human liver cancer HepG2 cells through the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Oncol Rep 37:865–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheruvathur MK, Abraham J, Mani B, Thomas TD (2010) Adventitious shoot induction from cultured intermodal explants of Malaxis acuminata D. Don, a valuable terrestrial medicinal orchid. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 101:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chinmay R, Suman K, Bishnupriya D, Mohanty RC, Dixit R, Padhi MM, Babu R (2011) Phyto-Pharmacognostical studies of two endangered species of Malaxis (Jeevak and rishibhak). Phcog J 3:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AKS (2007) High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in ‘Chyavanprash’a potent ayurvedic drug. J Pharm Biomed Anal 43:527–532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hernandez-Romeo Y, Acevedo L, Sanchez MDeLA, Shier WT, Abbas HK, Mata R (2005) Phytotoxic activity of bibenzyl derivatives from the orchid Epidendrum rigidum. J Agric Food Chem 53:6276–6280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hossain MM (2011) Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances-an overview. Fitoterapia 82:102–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kumar S, Chandra P, Bajpai V, Singh A, Srivastava M, Mishra DK, Kumar B (2015) Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive compounds from Phyllanthus amarus using LC/MS/MS techniques. Ind Crops Prod 69:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Narayana DA, Durg S, Manohar PR, Mahapatra A, Aramya AR (2016) Chyawanprash: A review of therapeutic benefits as in authoritative texts and documented clinical literature. J Ethnopharmacol 197:52–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rajurkar NS, Gaikwad KN (2014) Identification and quantification of amino acids from medicinally important plants by using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 37:2197–2205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rai V, Kakkar P, Khatoon S, Rawat AKS, Mehrotra S (2001) Heavy metal accumulation in some herbal drugs. Pharm Biol 39:384–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rubert J, Zachariasova M, Hajslova J (2015) Advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry based on metabolomics studies for food–a review. Food Addit Contam Part A 32:1685–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schieber A, Keller P, Streker P, Klaiber I, Carle R (2002) Detection of isorrhamnetin glycoside in extracts of apples (Malus domestica cv. “Brettacher”) by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCIMS/MS. Phytochem Anal 13:87–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Seger C, Griesmacher A (2007) Some important aspects of implementing tandem mass spectrometry in a routine clinical laboratory environment. Biochem Med 17:29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sharma YP, Rani J, Raina R, Bandana K (2014) New insights into the morphology of Malaxis acuminata D Don. Int J Farm Sci 4:136–146Google Scholar
  17. Simoni D, Giannini G, Baraldi PG, Romagnoli R, Roberti M, Rondanin R, Baruchello R, Grisolia G, Rossi M, Mirizzi D, Invidiata FP (2003) A convenient synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted terphenyls of biologically active stilbenes via a double Suzuki cross-coupling protocol. Tetrahedron Lett 44:3005–3008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Szlachetko DL, Kolanowska M (2014) New Malaxis species (Orchidaceae, Epidendroideae) from Colombia. Plant Syst Evol 300:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tang Y, Lou F, Wang J, Li Y, Zhuang S (2001) Coumaroyl flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry 58:1251–1256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Teoh ES (2016) Genus: macodes to mycaranthes. In medicinal orchids of Asia. Springer International Publishing, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Uma E, Rajendran R, Muthukumar T (2015) Morphology, anatomy and mycotrophy of pseudobulb and subterranean organs in Eulophia epidendraea and Malaxis acuminata (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae). Flora 217:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Xu J, Yu H, Qing C, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Chen Y (2009) Two new biphenanthrenes with cytotoxic activity from Bulbophyllum odoratissimum. Fitoterapia 80:381–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Yamaki M, Bai L, Inoue K, Takagi S (1989) Biphenanthrenes from Bletilla striata. Phytochemistry 28:3503–3505CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepika Singh
    • 1
  • Sunil Kumar
    • 1
  • Renu Pandey
    • 1
  • Mohammad Hasanain
    • 2
  • Jayanta Sarkar
    • 2
  • Brijesh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility DivisionCSIR-Central Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Biochemistry DivisionCSIR-Central Drug Research InstituteLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations