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Genetic bases of tolerance to Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

Abstract

Currently, the Varroa destructor mite is the most serious parasite of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and has become a nearly cosmopolitan species. The mite not only causes damage by feeding on the haemolymph of honey bees, but it also transmits viruses, which have been implicated in colony collapse disorder. The major research goal has been to breed mite-tolerant honey bee lines in order to reduce the amount of pesticide used, because pesticides can promote the evolution of resistance in mites. In this review, we describe different behavioural traits and genes that may be part of the defence against the Varroa mite. Specifically, we review grooming behaviour, Varroa-sensitive hygiene and the suppression of mite reproduction. A large number of candidate genes have been identified by Quantitative Trait Loci studies, and through gene expression studies their function and effect have been elucidated. Results from the studies discussed can be used in apiary practice.

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Acknowledgments

The publication is supported by the TÁMOP-4.2.2/B-10/1-2010-0024 project. The project is co-financed by the European Union and the European Social Fund. The manuscript has been proofread by Proof-Reading Service and Dr. Matthew Baranski as native English speaker. Authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

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Correspondence to Sz. Kusza.

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Zakar, E., Jávor, A. & Kusza, S. Genetic bases of tolerance to Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Insect. Soc. 61, 207–215 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-014-0347-5

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Keywords

  • Varroa destructor
  • Tolerance behaviours
  • Candidate genes
  • QTL
  • Gene expression