Roll-your-own cigarette use in Italy: sales and consumer profile—data from PASSI surveillance, 2015–2016
- 62 Downloads
The use of roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette has substantially increased in most high-income countries recently. This work aims to update Italian trends on loose tobacco sales and to describe the consumer profile of predominant RYO users.
Data from the Italian Agency of Customs and State Monopolies and from PASSI (Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) were used. Information on 16,858 interviews to current smokers aged 18–69 was analyzed.
Sales of loose tobacco increased more than sevenfold between 2004 and 2017. In 2015–2016, 11.6% of smokers reported smoking predominantly RYO cigarettes, with higher percentages among the youngest where a significant association between use of RYO and education was observed, unlike what happened in older adults. The association between economic difficulties and use of RYO was observed only in older adults.
A growing trend in RYO cigarette sales was registered between 2004 and 2017. In young smokers, the greater use of RYO was observed among the most educated regardless of financial strain, while in older ones among those with economic difficulties.
KeywordsHand-rolled/RYO tobacco Taxation Surveillance and monitoring Public policy Price
The authors thank the many PASSI regional referents and the regional and local coordinators who contributed to the data collection. A special thank goes to the health care workers in the public health departments in the LHUs, who conducted the interviews, and to Nancy Binkin for her precious support and editorial assistance.
PD had the original idea of the work. VM performed the statistical analyses. SG, GF and MM wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to critical review, editing and revision of manuscript draft and approval of the final version.
This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Health/National Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM 2016 PROGRAMME—EXECUTIVE PROJECT TITLE: Support to the regions for maintenance and implementation of PASSI surveillance on behavioral risk factors related to the health of the Italian adult population). The work of Silvano Gallus was partially supported by the Italian League Against Cancer (Milan).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest to be declared.
Human participants and/or animals
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- AAPOR (2001) The American Association for Public Opinion Research. In: Standard definitions: final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys, 7th ed., AAPOR, Oakbrook Terrace, IL, USAGoogle Scholar
- Baldissera S, Campostrini S, Binkin N et al (2011) Features and initial assessment of the Italian Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (PASSI), 2007–2008. Prev Chronic Dis 8:A24Google Scholar
- Bayly M, Scollo MM, Wakefield MA (2018) Who uses rollies? Trends in product offerings, price and use of roll-your-own tobacco in Australia. Tob Control. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054334 Google Scholar
- Brown AK, Nagelhout GE, van den Putte B et al (2015) Trends and socioeconomic differences in roll-your-own tobacco use: findings from the ITC Europe Surveys. Tob Control 24(Suppl 3):iii11–iii16. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Curti D, Shang C, Ridgeway W et al (2015) The use of legal, illegal and roll-your-own cigarettes to increasing tobacco excise taxes and comprehensive tobacco control policies: findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey. Tob Control 24(Suppl 3):iii17–iii24. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051890 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- D’Argenio P, Gallus S, Ghislandi S et al (2014) [In Italy, prevalence of smokers and manufactured cigarettes sales are decreasing, but social differences and sales of fine-cut tobacco are increasing]. Epidemiol Prev 38:273Google Scholar
- Di Quirico R (2010) Italy and the global economic crisis. Bull Ital Polit 2:3–19Google Scholar
- Hoek J, Ferguson S, Court E, Gallopel-Morvan K (2016) Qualitative exploration of young adult RYO smokers’ practices. Tob Control 26:563–568. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IARC (2011) International Agency for Cancer Research. Effectiveness of tax and price policies for tobacco control (IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention: Tobacco Control. Volume 14). Lyon, International Agency for Research on CancerGoogle Scholar
- IARC (2014) International Agency for Cancer Research. Pricing policy and control of tobacco in Europe. Policy recommendations for tobacco taxation in the European Union. Integrated Research Findings from PPACTE projectGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2018) World Health Organization. Price and tax policies (in relation to Article 6 of the Convention): technical report by WHO’s Tobacco Free Initiative. Report to the fourth session of the COP, Punta del Este, Uruguay, 2010 (document FCTC/COP/4/11). http://www.who.int/fctc/publications/en/
- WHO U-N and (2016) U.S. National Cancer Institute and World Health Organization. The Economics of Tobacco and Tobacco Control. National Cancer Institute Tobacco Control Monograph 21. NIH Publication No. 16-CA-8029A. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; and Geneva, CH: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
- World Bank (1999) Curbing the epidemic—governments and the economics of tobacco control. Development in practice. Washington DC; World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/914041468176678949/Curbing-the-epidemic-governments-and-the-economics-of-tobacco-contro