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Analysis of non-compliance with smoke-free legislation in Russia



The study examined the smokers’ non-compliance rates in indoor public places in Russia and the sociodemographic factors associated with non-compliance.


Univariate analysis and logistic regression models were performed using cross-sectional data from a representative sample of Russian adults (N = 4006).


27.2% of Russian smokers did not comply with smoke-free bans. Non-compliance was attributed to sociodemographic characteristics of smokers, mainly to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, regular alcohol consumption, being aged between 15 and 34 years, being in the highest income group and living in an urban area. Neither the sex, nor the family status of smokers exerted a statistically significant affiliation with non-compliance. Higher rates of non-compliance were observed in restaurants, cafes, bars and nightclubs, common domestic premises of apartment buildings and indoor workplaces. Violations on public transport, in governmental buildings, health and sport facilities, colleges and universities were less common.


There is a need to revise the methods of enforcement with respect to sociodemographic characteristics of smokers associated with non-compliance in public places where violations are widespread.

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The data collection was sponsored by the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) in 2017. The remainder of the research was funded by NRU HSE Basic Research Program under Grant No. 33 (2018) “Consumer behavior on the markets of socially important goods and services”.

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Correspondence to Liudmila Zasimova.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Zasimova, L. Analysis of non-compliance with smoke-free legislation in Russia. Int J Public Health 64, 413–422 (2019).

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  • Smoking
  • Second-hand smoke
  • Bans
  • Non-compliance
  • Smoke-free legislation
  • Russia