What role do family composition and functioning play in emotional and behavioural problems among adolescent boys and girls?
The aim was to explore the associations of family composition, family support and communication with emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents as well as a possible moderating effect of gender on these associations.
Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were used. The final sample consisted of 2908 students (mean age 14.36; 49.7% boys). We explored the association using generalized linear models.
We found that non-intact family was significantly associated with a higher score in emotional and behavioural problems. Family support and communication were found to be significantly associated with a lower score in emotional and behavioural problems. Significant interactions of gender and family communication with emotional and behavioural problems were found, showing that family communication decreased emotional and behavioural problems only in girls.
Family composition, family support and communication play an important role in the occurrence of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescence. Family communication lowers these problems only in girls. Prevention and intervention programmes could be focused on parent–child communication strategies with the importance of differences in the needs of boys and girls.
KeywordsAdolescence Family composition Family support Family communication Emotional and behavioural problems Gender
This work was partially supported by the Research and Development Support Agency under Contract No. APVV-15-0012, by the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences, reg. no. 1/0981/15 and by the Internal Grant Agency of Czech Ministry of Health (IGA_CMTF_2018_006).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the study were in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the P. J. Safarik University in Kosice (No: 9/2012). Parents were informed about the study via the school administration and could opt out if they disagreed with their child’s participation. Participation in the study was fully voluntary and anonymous, with no explicit incentives provided for participation.
- Blum LM, Blum RW (2009) Resilience in adolescence. In: Santelli JS, Crosby RA (eds) Adolescent health: understanding and preventing risk behaviors. Wiley, New York, pp 51–61Google Scholar
- Bronfenbrenner U (1979) The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). About HBSC. http://www.hbsc.org/about/index.html. Accessed 1 Aug 2018
- Luby JL, Gaffrey MS, Tillman R, April LM, Belden AC (2014) Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool depression. Am J Psychiatry 171:768–776. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13091198 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mcnaughton J (2000) Gender difference in parent child communication patterns. J Undergrad Res 3:25–32Google Scholar
- National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2006) Parent-training/education programmes in the management of children with conduct disorders. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/TA102guidance.pdf
- Queen AH, Stewart LM, Ehrenreich-May J, Pincus DB (2013) Mothers’ and fathers’ ratings of family relationship quality: associations with preadolescent and adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms in a clinical sample. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44:351–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0329-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Samm A, Tooding LM, Sisask M, Kolves K, Aasvee K, Varnik A (2010) Suicidal thoughts and depressive feelings amongst Estonian school children: effect of family relationship and family structure. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(5):457–468. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-009-0079-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (2005) Child and adolescent mental health policies and plans. [cited 2018 Mar 5] http://www.who.int/mental_health/policy/Childado_mh_module.pdf