Skip to main content

Associations of intimate partner violence with screening for mental health disorders among women in urban Bangladesh

Abstract

Objectives

We examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and screening for depression in Bangladesh, a country with high prevalence of IPV and lack of data, awareness and provider infrastructure for mental illness.

Methods

We used data from a representative sample of 11,202 women from the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Elements of social learning theory were used to examine the association. Additionally, we examined the interaction effect of experiencing IPV and justification of IPV on screening for mental health disorders.

Results

Results indicate that women who experienced IPV were significantly more likely to be screened for mental health disorders (AOR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.86–2.34). However, the direction of this association is reversed for women who justify various forms of IPV to varying degrees.

Conclusions

These findings reflect the importance of how women’s perception of violence may influence their mental health. Our results indicate a counter-intuitive association, given that we found that women’s justification of IPV is adaptive for them in terms of preventing symptoms of mental health problems and have potential to inform future public health policy and research.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abbassi A, Aslinia SD (2010) Family violence, trauma and social learning theory journal of professional counseling, practice. Theory Res 38:16

    Google Scholar 

  • Ali TS, Mogren I, Krantz G, Institutionen för klinisk v, Medicinska f, Obstetrik och g, Umeå u (2013) Intimate partner violence and mental health effects: a population-based study among married women in karachi, Pakistan. Int J Behav Med 20:131–139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-011-9201-6

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allsworth JE, Secura GM, Zhao Q, Madden T, Peipert JF (2013) The impact of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse on contraceptive method selection and discontinuation. Am J Public Health 103:1857–1864. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301371

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Andersen S, Ertac S, Gneezy U, List JA, Maximiano S (2013) Gender, competitiveness, and socialization at a young age: evidence from a matrilineal and a patriarchal society. Rev Econ Stat 95(4):1438–1443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandura A (1978) Social learning theory of aggression J Commun 28:12

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell JC (2002) Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)08336-8

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell JC, Lewandowski LA (1997) Mental and physical health effects of intimate partner violence on women and children. Psychiatr Clin North Am 20:353–374

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cattaneo LB, DeLoveh HLM (2008) The role of socioeconomic status in helpseeking from hotlines, shelters, and police among a national sample of women experiencing intimate partner violence. Am J Orthopsychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014558

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Clement S et al (2015) What is the impact of mental health-related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychol Med 45:11–27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coker AL, Davis KE, Arias I, Desai S, Sanderson M, Brandt HM, Smith PH (2002) Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. Am J Prev Med 23:260–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellsberg M, Emmelin M (2014) Intimate partner violence and mental health. Glob Health Action. https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v3407.25658

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ellsberg M, Jansen HA, Heise L, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C (2008) Intimate partner violence and women's physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. The Lancet 371(9619):1165–1172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flanagan JC, Gordon KC, Moore TM, Stuart GL (2015) Women’s stress, depression, and relationship adjustment profiles as they relate to intimate partner violence and mental health during pregnancy and postpartum. Psychol Violence 5:66–73. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036895

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen AFMH, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts CH (2006a) Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69523-8

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen HA, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts CH (2006b) Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. The Lancet 368:1260–1269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gneezy U, Leonard KL, List JA (2009) Gender differences in competition: evidence from a matrilineal and a patriarchal society. Econometrica 77(5):1637–1664

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haj-Yahia MM (2003) Beliefs about wife beating among Arab men from Israel: the influence of their patriarchal ideology. J Fam Violence 18:193–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harpham T et al (2003) Measuring mental health in a cost-effective manner. Health Policy Plann 18:344–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heise L, Ellsberg M, Gottmoeller M (2002) A global overview of gender‐based violence. Int J Gynecol Obstet 78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howe L, Huttly S, Abramsky T (2006) Risk factors for injuries in young children in four developing countries: the Young Lives Study. Trop Med Int Health 11:1557–1566

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Husain N, Chaudhry I, Afridi M, Tomenson B, Creed F (2007) Life stress and depression in a tribal area of Pakistan. Br J Psychiatry 190:36–41

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kandiyoti D (1988) Bargaining with patriarchy. Gender Soc 2(3):274–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kessler RC et al (2015) Anxious and non-anxious major depressive disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 24:210–226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796015000189

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Kim H, Kahng SK (2011) Examining the relationship between domestic violence and depression among Koreans: the role of self-esteem and social support as mediators: domestic violence and depression. Asian Social Work Policy Rev 5:181–197. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-1411.2011.00057.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krause KH, Haardörfer R, Yount KM (2017) Individual schooling and women’s community-level media exposure: a multilevel analysis of normative influences associated with women’s justification of wife beating in Bangladesh. J Epidemiol Community Health 71:122–128. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2015-206693

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar S, Jeyaseelan L, Suresh S, Ahuja RC (2005) Domestic violence and its mental health correlates in Indian women. Br J Psychiatry 187:62–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meekers D, Pallin SC, Hutchinson P (2013) Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia. BMC Women’s Health 13(1):28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meffert SM, McCulloch CE, Neylan TC, Gandhi M, Lund C (2015) Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women’s depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa. Soc Sci Med 131:89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.008

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of Women and Children Affairs MoWCA (2010) Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Government of Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Google Scholar 

  • Mihalic SW, Elliott D (1997) A social learning theory model of marital violence. J Fam Violence 12:21–47. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021941816102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murshid NS (2012) Intergenerational transmission of domestic violence in Bangladesh. J Bangladesh Stud 14:20–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Murshid NS, Critelli FM (2017) Empowerment and intimate partner violence in Pakistan: results from a nationally representative survey. J Interpers Violence. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517690873

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Naved RT, Azim S, Bhuiya A, Persson LA (2006) Physical violence by husbands: magnitude, disclosure and help-seeking behavior of women in Bangladesh. Soc Sci Med 1982:62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newman MS (2013) Review of studies of mental health in bangladesh, with a focus on depression. Int J Mental Health 42:48–77. https://doi.org/10.2753/IMH0020-7411420403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • National Institute of Population Research and Training, Mitra and Associates, and ORC Marco (2011) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2009. ORC Macro, Calverton

    Google Scholar 

  • NIPORT M (2009) Macro international: Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2007. National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Dhaka

    Google Scholar 

  • Oppong S (2014) Between Bandura and Giddens: structuration theory in social psychological research? Psychol Thought 7:111–123. https://doi.org/10.5964/psyct.v7i2.104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parvin K, Sultana N, Naved RT (2012) Spousal violence against women and help seeking behavior. In: Amin S, Naved RT (eds) Growing up safe and healthy (SAFE): baseline report on sexual and reproductive health and rights and violence against women and girls in Dhaka slums. icddr,b, Dhaka

    Google Scholar 

  • Parvin K, Sultana N, Naved RT (2016) Disclosure and help seeking behavior of women exposed to physical spousal violence in Dhaka slums. BMC Public Health 16:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3060-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salcioglu E, Urhan S, Pirinccioglu T, Aydin S (2017) Anticipatory fear and helplessness predict PTSD and depression in domestic violence survivors. Psychol Trauma Theory Res Pract Policy 9:117–125. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schuler SR, Yount KM, Lenzi R (2012) Justification of wife beating in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative analysis of gender differences in responses to survey questions. Violence Against Women 18:1177–1191. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801212465152

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Snethen G, Van Puymbroeck M (2008) Girls and physical aggression: causes, trends, and intervention guided by social learning theory. Aggress Violent Behav 13:346–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.05.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Srinivasan TN, Suresh TR (1991) The nonspecific symptom screening method: detection of nonpsychotic morbidity based on nonspecific symptoms. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 13:106–114

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teng P, Hall BJ, Li L (2014) The association between social resources and depression among female migrants affected by domestic violence. Eur J Psychotraumatol. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.26528

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Tuan T, Harpham T, Huong NT (2004) Validity and reliability of the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items in Vietnam. Hong Kong J Psychiatry 14:15

    Google Scholar 

  • Waltermaurer E (2012) Public justification of intimate partner violence: a review of the literature. Trauma Violence Abuse 13:167–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yount KM, Higgins EM, VanderEnde KE, Krause KH, Minh TH, Schuler SR, Anh HT (2015) Men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence in vietnam: gendered social learning and the challenges of masculinity. Men Masc. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184x15572896

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Prabal K. De.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors (Prabal K. De and Nadine Shaanta Murshid) confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

Ethical approval

Ethics approval was not required as the data used in this study were previously collected and are publicly available in a de-identified format.

Additional information

This article is part of the special issue “Violence, Justice, and Health: Implications for a Multisectoral Collaboration”.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

De, P.K., Murshid, N.S. Associations of intimate partner violence with screening for mental health disorders among women in urban Bangladesh. Int J Public Health 63, 913–921 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-018-1139-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-018-1139-x

Keywords

  • Intimate partner violence
  • Domestic violence
  • Mental health problems
  • Bangladesh