The effects of non-physical peer sexual harassment on high school students’ psychological well-being in Norway: consistent and stable findings across studies
The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image.
Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image.
Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status.
The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.
KeywordsWell-being Peer sexual harassment Emerging adults Gender Sexual and ethnic minorities
Thanks to Sør-Trøndelag County Authority for supporting this research, and to the students and staff of the participating high schools. Mons Bendixen (MB) and Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair (LEOK) conceived the study, designed and coordinated both studies, and drafted the manuscript. MB performed the final statistical analyses. MB and LEOK participated in the interpretation of the data. Josef Daveronis (JD) participated in the development of the research questions, performed the initial statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was carried out in line with the American Psychological Association’s ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.
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