Self-efficacy and barriers to disaster evacuation in Hong Kong
- 891 Downloads
To investigate specific challenges to Hong Kong’s capacity for effective disaster response, we assessed perceived barriers to evacuation and citizens’ self-efficacy.
Global positioning system software was used to determine random sampling locations across Hong Kong, weighted by population density. The resulting sample of 1023 participants (46.5% female, mean age 40.74 years) were invited to complete questionnaires on emergency preparedness, barriers to evacuation and self-efficacy. Latent profile analysis and multinomial logistic regression were used to identify self-efficacy profiles and predictors of profile membership.
Only 11% of the sample reported feeling prepared to respond to a disaster. If asked to evacuate in an emergency, 41.9% of the sample cited significant issues that would preclude them from doing so. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with barriers to disaster response so that participants reporting higher levels of self-efficacy cited fewer perceived barriers to evacuation.
Hong Kong has established effective strategies for emergency response, but concerns regarding evacuation and mobilisation remain. The findings indicate that improving self-efficacy for disaster response has potential to increase evacuation readiness.
KeywordsDisaster preparedness Self-efficacy Decision-making Evacuation Natural disaster Asia
The study received funding from The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust, and the first author was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship and Curtin Research Fellowship. We wish to acknowledge the support of the Hong Kong Jockey Club Disaster Preparedness and Response Institute and the valuable contributions of Kai Hsaio, Kevin Hung, Derek Lam, May Yeung, Eva Lam, Celeste Tang, and our research assistants. We extend our heartfelt gratitude to the participants of the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. Ethical approval was received from the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health Institutional Review Board and Hong Kong University Research Ethics Committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Benight CC, Cieslak R, Waldrep E (2009) Social and cognitive frameworks for understanding the mental health consequences of disasters. In: Neria Y, Galea S, Norris FH (eds) Mental health and disasters. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Census and Statistics Department (2012) 2011 population census summary results. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
- Census and Statistics Department (2017) Hong Kong in figures. Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (2013) Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy-October–November 2012 MMWR. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:393Google Scholar
- Chan E, Yue J, Lee P, Wang S (2016) Socio-demographic predictors for urban community disaster health risk perception and household based preparedness in a Chinese urban city. PLOS Curr Disasters. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.287fb7fee6f9f4521af441a236c2d519 Google Scholar
- Gibbs L et al. (2016) Post-bushfire relocation decision-making and personal wellbeing: a case study from Victoria, Australia. In: Awotona A (ed) Planning for community-based disaster resilience worldwide: learning from case studies in six continents. Ashgate Publishing Limited, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Leaning J et al (2015) Disaster preparedness in Hong Kong: a scoping study. FXB Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Maddux JE (2013) Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: theory, research, and application. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
- Marsh HW, Lüdtke O, Trautwein U, Morin AJS (2009) Classical latent profile analysis of academic self-concept dimensions: synergy of person- and variable-centered approaches to theoretical models of self-concept. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J 16:191–225. doi: 10.1080/10705510902751010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén LK, Muthén BO (2010) Mplus User’s Guide, 6th edn. Muthén & Muthén, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
- Re Swiss (2014) Mind the risk: a global ranking of cities under threat from natural disasters. Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd., ZurichGoogle Scholar
- Ronan K, Johnston D (2006) Promoting community resilience in disasters: the role for schools, youth, and families. Illustrated edn. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Schwarzer R, Jerusalem M (1995) Generalized self-efficacy scale. In: Weinman J, Wright S, Johnston M (eds) Measures in health psychology: a user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs. NFER-NELSON, Windsor, pp 35–37Google Scholar
- Steinberg A, Wukich C, Hao-Che W (2016) Central social media actors in disaster information networks. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters 34:147–174Google Scholar
- UNISDR (2010) Early warning practices can save lives: selected examples good practices and lessons learned. UNISDR, BonnGoogle Scholar