Short-term effects of fine particulate matter pollution on daily health events in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ambient air pollution is among the leading risks for health worldwide and by 2050 will largely overcome deaths due to unsafe sanitation and malaria, but local evidence from Latin America (LA) is scarce. We aimed to summarize the effect of short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) on morbidity and mortality in Latin America and evaluate evidence coverage and quality, using systematic review and meta-analysis.
The comprehensive search (six online databases and hand-searching) identified studies investigating the short-term associations between PM2.5 and daily health events in LA. Two reviewers independently accessed the internal validity of the studies and used random-effect models in the meta-analysis.
We retrieved 1628 studies. Nine were elected for the qualitative analysis and seven for the quantitative analyses. Each 10 µg/m3 increments in daily PM2.5 concentrations was significantly associated with increased risk for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in all-ages (polled RR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.02–1.02 and RR = 1.01, 95% CI , 1.01–1.02, respectively).
Short-term exposure to PM2.5 in LA is significantly associated with increased risk for respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. Evidence is concentrated in few cities and some presented high risk of bias.
KeywordsAir pollution Particulate matter Fine particulate matter PM2.5 Mortality Latin America Systematic review and meta-analysis
Compliance with ethical standards
The present manuscript is an original work, has not been previously published whole or in part, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. We did not fabricate data. We did not present data, text or theories from other authors as if they are ours (no “plagiarism”). All authors contributed sufficiently to the scientific work, read the manuscript, agreed the work is ready for submission to a journal and accepted responsibility for the manuscript’s content. All authors do not present actual or potential conflicts of interest regarding the submitted.
- Anderson H, Atkinson R, Peacock J, Marston L, Konstantinou K (2004) Meta-analysis of time-series studies and panel studies of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). Rep. a WHO Task Gr. 1–68.Google Scholar
- Cesar ACG, Nascimento LFC, De Carvalho JA, Gobbo Cesar AC, Nascimento LFC, de Carvalho Jr JÁ (2013) Association between exposure to particulate matter and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in children. Rev Saude Publica 47:1209–1212. doi: 10.1590/S0034-8910.2013047004713 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators (2016) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388(10053):1659–1724. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8
- Green J, Sánchez S (2012) Air quality in Latin America: an overview. Clean air Inst. 1–28. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
- Health Effects Institute (2002) Understanding the Health Effects of Components of the Particulate Matter Mix: Progress and Next StepsGoogle Scholar
- Higgins J, Green S (2011) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration.Google Scholar
- Ignotti E, Hacon SS, Junger WL, Mourão D, Longo K, FreitasS, et a. (2010) Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in the subequatorial Amazon: a time series approach Cad Saúde Pública 26(4):747–761; doi: 10.1590/S0102-311X2010000400017
- Lam J, Koustas E, Sutton P, Johnson PI, Atchley DS, Sen S et al (2014) The Navigation Guide - evidence-based medicine meets environmental health: integration of animal and human evidence for PFOA effects on fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 122:1040–1051. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307923 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ministério do Meio Ambiente (2014) 1° diagnóstico da rede de monitoramento da qualidade do ar no Brasil. 267.Google Scholar
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2012) Environmental outlook to 2050: the consequences of inaction. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [online], http://www.oecd.org/environment/oecdenvironmental outlookto2050theconsequencesofinaction.htm
- Romieu I, Gouveia N, Cifuentes LA, de Leon AP, Junger W, Vera J, et al (2012) Multicity study of air pollution and mortality in Latin America (the ESCALA study) Res Rep Health Eff Inst 5–86Google Scholar
- Sanhueza PH, Vargas CR, Jiménez J.P (1998) Daily mortality in Santiago and its relation with air pollution. Rev Méd Chile 127:235–242Google Scholar
- Van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Brauer M, Hsu NC, Kahn RA, Levy RC et al (2016) Global estimates of fine particulate matter using a combined geophysical-statistical method with information from satellites, models, and monitors. Environ Sci Technol 50:3762–3772. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05833 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (2006) WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide: global update 2005: summary of risk assessment. Geneva World Heal Organ 1–22; doi: 10.1016/0004-6981(88)90109-6
- World Health Organization (2015) WHO Expert Consultation: available evidence for the future update of the WHO Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs).10Google Scholar