Longitudinal associations between bullying and mental health among adolescents in Vietnam
- 501 Downloads
This study measured bullying roles across an academic year and examined how change in bullying experiences is associated with symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in Vietnam.
1424 students in middle and high schools completed two self-administered questionnaires, six months apart in 2014–2015.
Students who were victimised often and those who were classified as highly involved as both victims and bullies at one or both survey times showed significantly higher levels of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation than other students. The mental health of adolescents who were involved in bullying as a victim or bully remained at low levels was generally similar to those not involved in any bullying. However, females who had stable but low level in victimisation or bully–victim status had worse mental health than males with stable-low-level exposure.
This is the first longitudinal analysis of bullying among adolescents in Vietnam. Persistent and frequent bullying was strongly linked with poor mental health for males and females. A new observation is that Vietnamese girls appear to be more sensitive to low level but long-term bullying involvement than were boys.
KeywordsBullying Cyberbullying Adolescents Longitudinal study Mental health Vietnam
The authors would like to thank all students who participated in the study, the management board of four schools in Hanoi and HaiDuong, Ms. Dinh Thu Ha, and the data collection team from the Hanoi School of Public Health for their efforts and collaboration.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Human Research Ethics Committees of the Queensland University of Technology (Australia) and the Hanoi School of Public Health (Vietnam) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Gladden RM, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Hamburger ME, Lumpkin CD (2014) Bullying surveillance among youths: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements. Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA; National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Department of Education. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/bullying-definitions-final-a.pdf
- Hemphill S, Heerde J, Gomo R (2014) A conceptual definition of school-based bullying for the Australian research and academic community. Canberra: Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth. https://www.aracy.org.au/publications-resources/command/download_file/id/265/filename/A_Conceptual_definition_of_School-Based_Bullying_-_FINAL_JUNE_2014.pdf
- Kent OH (1989) The National Adolescent Student Health Survey. A Report on the Health of America’s Youth. ERIC Clearinghouse. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED316535
- Kessler R, Mroczek D (1994) Final versions of our non-specific psychological distress scale [memo dated 10/3/94]. Ann Arbor, MI: Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1994Google Scholar
- Klomek AB, Kleinman M, Altschuler E, Marrocco F, Amakawa L, Gould MS (2013) Suicidal adolescents’ experiences with bullying perpetration and victimization during high school as risk factors for later depression and suicidality. J Adoles Health 53:S37–S42. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.12.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Le HTH, Nguyen HT, Truong TQ, Campbell MA, Gatton ML, Dunne MP (2016) Validity and reliability of traditional and cyberbullying victimization scale: findings from a school based survey in urban areas of Hanoi and Hai Duong Vietnam. J Public Health 40:199–203Google Scholar
- Nguyen TH (2006) Child matreatment in Vietnam: prevalence and associated mental and physical health problem. Doctoral thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/16331/1/Huong_Thanh_Nguyen_Thesis.pdf
- Nguyen HT, Le AV, Dunne M (2007) Giá trị và độ tin cậy của hai thang đo trầm cảm và lo âu sử dụng trong nghiên cứu cộng đồng với đối tượng vị thành niên (Value and reliability of Depression and Anxiety measuring-Scales used in community- based research among adolescents). Vietnam J Public Health 7:25–31Google Scholar
- Olweus D (1996) The revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. University of Bergen, Research Center for Health PromotionGoogle Scholar
- Pham TTB (2015) Study burden, academic stress and mental health among high school students in Vietnam. Doctoral thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/82291/1/Thi%20Thu%20Ba_Pham_Thesis.pdf
- Thai TT (2010) Educational stress and mental health among secondary and high school students in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Master thesis, Queensland University of Technology, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Turner HA, Shattuck A, Finkelhor D, Hamby S (2015) Effects of poly-victimization on adolescent social support, self-concept, and psychological distress. J Interpers Violence 1–26. doi: 10.1177/0886260515586376
- Uba I, Yaacob SN, Juhari R (2010) Bullying and its’ relationship with depression among teenagers. J Psychol 1(1):15–22Google Scholar