Advertisement

International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 379–386 | Cite as

Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

  • Jana Holubcikova
  • Peter Kolarcik
  • Andrea Madarasova Geckova
  • Eva Joppova
  • Jitse P. van Dijk
  • Sijmen A. Reijneveld
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent.

Methods

We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI).

Results

Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting—the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03–2.16).

Conclusions

Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes—especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

Keywords

Young adolescents Alcohol Energy drinks Negative behavioural outcomes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the Research and Development Support Agency under Contract No. APVV 0032-11 and APVV-15-0012, by the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, science, research and sport of the Slovak Republic, the Slovak Academy of Sciences, reg. no. 1/0895/14, and was also partially funded within the framework of the project “Social determinants of health in socially and physically disadvantaged and other groups of population” of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Czech Republic CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0063’.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. Andersson T, Alfredsson L, Källberg H, Zdravkovic S, Ahlbom A (2005) Calculating measures of biological interaction. Eur J Epidemiol 20:575–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Azagba S, Langille D, Asbridge M (2014) An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students. Prev Med 62:54–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonar EE, Cunningham RM, Polshkova S, Chermack ST, Blow FC, Walton MA (2015) Alcohol and energy drink use among adolescents seeking emergency department care. Addict Behav 43:11–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown SA, McGue M, Maggs J, Schulenberg J, Hingson R, Swartzwelder S, Martin C, Chung T, Tapert SF, Sher K, Winters KC, Lowman C, Murphy S (2008) A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 years of age. Pediatrics 121(Suppl 4):290–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Costa B, Hayley A, Miller PG (2014) Young adolescents’ perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study. Appetite 80:183–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dusseldorp E, Klein Velderman M, Paulussen TWGM, Junger M, van Nieuwenhuijzen M, Reijneveld SA (2014) Targets for primary prevention: cultural, social and intrapersonal factors associated with co-occurring health-related behaviours. Psychol Health 29:598–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Elgar FJ, Pförtner T, Moor I, De Clercq B, Stevens GWJM, Currie C (2015) Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002–2010: a time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Lancet 385:2088–2095CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Flotta D, Micò R, Nobile CGA, Pileggi C, Bianco A, Pavia M (2014) Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 38:1654–1661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gallimberti L, Buja A, Chindamo S, Vinelli A, Lazzarin G, Terraneo A, Scafato E, Baldo V (2013) Energy drink consumption in children and early adolescents. Eur J Pediatr 172:1335–1340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Grasser E, Yepuri G, Dulloo A, Montani J (2014) Cardio- and cerebrovascular responses to the energy drink Red Bull in young adults: a randomized cross-over study. Eur J Nutr 53:1561–1571CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Grunbaum JA, Kann L, Kinchen S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Lowry R, Harris WA, McManus T, Chyen D, Collins J (2004) Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53(2):1–96Google Scholar
  12. Guo J, Collins LM, Hill KG, Hawkins JD (2000) Developmental pathways to alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol 61(6):799–808CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Harris JL, Munsell CR (2015) Energy drinks and adolescents: what’s the harm? Nutr Rev 73:247–257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Holubcikova J, Kolarcik P, Madarasova Geckova A, Reijneveld SA, van Dijk JP (2015) The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents. Int J Public Health 60:699–706CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Howland J, Rohsenow DJ (2013) Risks of energy drinks mixed with alcohol. JAMA 309:245–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ilie G, Boak A, Mann RE, Adlaf EM, Hamilton H, Asbridge M, Rehm J, Cusimano MD (2015) Energy drinks, alcohol, sports and traumatic brain injuries among adolescents. PLoS One 10:1–13Google Scholar
  17. Koivusilta L, Kuoppamaki H, Rimpela A (2016) Energy drink consumption, health complaints and late bedtime among young adolescents. Int J Public Health 61:299–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kponee KZ, Siegel M, Jernigan DH (2014) The use of caffeinated alcoholic beverages among underage drinkers: results of a national survey. Addict Behav 39:253–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kristjansson AL, Sigfusdottir ID, Frost SS, James JE (2013) Adolescent caffeine consumption and self-reported violence and conduct disorder. J Youth Adolesc 42:1053–1062CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kristjansson AL, Mann MJ, Sigfusdottir ID, James JE (2015) Mode of daily caffeine consumption among adolescents and the practice of mixing alcohol with energy drinks: relationships to drunkenness. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 76:397–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Magnezi R, Bergman LC, Grinvald-Fogel H, Cohen HA (2015) A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption. Isr J Health Policy Res 4:55CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Seifert SM, Schaechter JL, Hershorin ER, Lipschultz SE (2011) Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatrics 127:511–528CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Swahn MH, Simon TR, Hammig BJ, Guerrero JL (2004) Alcohol-consumption behaviors and risk for physical fighting and injuries among adolescent drinkers. Addict Behav 29:959–963CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Temple JL (2009) Caffeine use in children: what we know, what we have left to learn, and why we should worry. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:793–806CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Terry-McElrath Y, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD (2014) Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students. J Addict Med 8:6–13CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Van Batenburg-Eddes T, Lee NC, Weeda WD, Krabbendam L, Huizinga M (2014) The potential adverse effect of energy drinks on executive functions in early adolescence. Front Psychol 5:457PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. van Nieuwenhuizen M, Junger M, Klein Velderman M, Wiefferink KH, Paulussen TWGM, Hox J, Reijneveld SA (2009) Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population. Prev Med 48:572–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vida K, Rácz J (2015) Prevalence and consequences of the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: a literature review. J Caffeine Res 5:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jana Holubcikova
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peter Kolarcik
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Andrea Madarasova Geckova
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Eva Joppova
    • 4
  • Jitse P. van Dijk
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
  • Sijmen A. Reijneveld
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of MedicineGraduate School Kosice Institute for Society and Health, P. J. Safarik UniversityKosiceSlovakia
  2. 2.Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of MedicineP. J. Safarik UniversityKosiceSlovakia
  3. 3.Olomouc University Society and Health Institute, Palacky University OlomoucOlomoucCzech Republic
  4. 4.Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Educational Bases in Associated HospitalsP. J. Safarik UniversityKosiceSlovakia
  5. 5.Department of Community and Occupational MedicineUniversity Medical Centre Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations