To examine the impact of a 3 year community-based violence prevention intervention on risk of violence and social capital in two poor urban communities in Honduras in 2011–2014.
A quasi-experimental design pre and post implementation of the intervention was conducted based on data from two randomly selected samples using the same structured questionnaire in 2011 and in 2014.
Community members had a 42 % lower risk of violence in 2014 compared to 2011. There was a positive relation between participation in the intervention and structural social capital, and participants had more than twice the likelihood of engaging in citizenship activities compared to the general population.
The intervention contributed to decreasing violence and increasing community resilience in two urban areas in Honduras. Citizenship activities and active community participation in the violence prevention agenda rather than social trust and cohesion characteristics was affected by the intervention. This research introduces important lessons learned to future researchers aiming to retrieve very sensitive data in a similarly violent setting, and provides strong research opportunities within areas, which to this date remain undiscovered.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Auyero J, Burbano de Lara A, Fernanda Berti M (2014) Violence and the state at the urban margins. J Contemp Ethnogr 43:94–116. doi:10.1177/0891241613
Briceño-León R, Villaveces A, Concha-Eastman A (2008) Understanding the uneven distribution of the incidence of homicide in Latin America. Int J Epidemiol 37:751–757. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn153
Brown KM, Hoye R, Nicholson M (2012) Generating trust? Sport and community participation. J Sociol. doi:10.1177/1440783312467091
Brune NE, Bossert T (2009) Building social capital in post-conflict communities: evidence from Nicaragua. Soc Sci Med 68:885–893. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.024
Daily Mail (2016) The 50 most violent cities in the world are revealed, with 21 of them in Brazil… but Venezuela’s capital Caracas is named the most deadly. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3419140/The-50-violent-cities-world-revealed-21-Brazil.html. Accessed 30 Apr 2016
De Silva MJ, Harpham T, Tuan T, Bartolini R, Penny ME, Huttly SR (2006) Psychometric and cognitive validation of a social capital measurement tool in Peru and Vietnam. Soc Sci Med 62:941–953. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.050
Dinesen C, Ronsbo H, Juárez C, González M, Estrada Méndez MÁ, Modvig J (2013) Violence and social capital in post-conflict Guatemala. Rev Panam Salud Publica 43:162–168
Economist (2016) The world´s most violent cities. http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2016/03/daily-chart-18. Accessed 21 Apr 2016
Eisner M (2015) How to reduce homicide by 50 % in the next 30 years. Igarapé Institute, a think and do tank. http://www.igarape.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Homicide-Dispatch_1_EN.pdf. Accessed 15 Jul 2015
Hansen-Nord NS, Skar M, Kjaerulf F, Almendarez J, Bähr S, Sosa Ó, Castro J, Andersen AN, Modvig J (2014) Social capital and violence in poor urban areas of Honduras. Aggress Violent Behav 19:643–648. doi:10.1016/j.arb.2014.09.013
Kjaerulf F, Barahona R (2010) Preventing violence and reinforcing human security: a rights-based framework for top-down and bottom-up action. Rev Panam Salud Publica 27:382–395
Koonings K, Kruijt D (2007) Fractured cities: social exclusion, urban violence and contested spaces in Latin America. Zed Books, London
Krug EG, Mercy JA, Dahlberg LL, Zwi AB (2002) The world report on violence and health. Lancet 360:1083–1088. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11133-0
La Prensa G (2016) El Salvador con mas homicidios en CA. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2016/01/03/el-salvador-con-mas-homicidios-en-c-a; Daily mail, 2016. Accessed 1 Mar 2016
Laverack G, Wallerstein N (2001) Measuring community empowerment: a fresh look at organizational domains. Health Promot Int 16:179–185
McIlwaine C, Moser CON (2001) Violence and social capital in urban poor communities: perspectives from Colombia and Guatemala. J Int Dev 13:965–984. doi:10.1002/jid.815
Mitchell AD, Bossert TJ (2007) Measuring dimensions of social capital: evidence from surveys in poor communities in Nicaragua. Soc Sci Med 64:50–63. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.021
Mitchell MD, Hargrove GL, Collins MH, Thompson MP, Reddick TL, Kaslow NJ (2006) Coping variables that mediate the relation between intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes among low-income, African American Women. J Clin Psychol 62:1503–1520
Moser CON, McIlwaine C (2006) Latin American urban violence as a development concern: towards a framework for violence reduction. World Dev 34:89–112. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.07.012
Muggah R (2012) Researching the Urban Dilemma: Urbanization, Poverty and Violence. IDRC, Ottawa. http://www.idrc.ca/EN/PublishingImages/Researching-the-Urban-Dilemma-Baseline-study.pdf. Accessed 13 Jul 2015
Portes A (1998) Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annu Rev Sociol 24:1–24. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.1
RAND Corporation (2015) Community resilience. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/tools/TL100/TL163/RAND_TL163.pdf. Accessed 26 Jun 2015
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2013) Citizen security with a human face: evidence and proposals for Latin America. Human development report for Latin America. UNDP, New York. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/citizen_security_with_a_human_face_-executivesummary.pdf. Accessed 6 Jul 2015
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2014) Global study on homicide 2013. UNODC, Vienna. https://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf. Accessed 10 Jun 2015
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (2012). A toolkit for urban resilience in situations of chronic violence. http://web.mit.edu/cis/urban_resilience_toolkit.pdf. Accessed 2 Jul 2015
World Bank (2011) World development report. Conflict, security, and development. The World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDRS/Resources/WDR2011_Full_Text.pdf. Accessed 28 Jun 2015
World Health Organization (WHO), and University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology Violence Research Centre (2015) Global strategies to reduce violence by 50 % in 30 years. http://www.vrc.crim.cam.ac.uk/VRCconferences/conference/violencereductionreport. Accessed 20 Jul 2015
Yacoub S, Arellano S, Padgett-Moncada D (2006) Violence related injuries, deaths and disabilities in the capital of Honduras. Injury 37:428–434. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2005.12.001
The authors thank the study respondents for their participation in this study. Special thanks to Dr. Shr-Jie Sharlenna Wang for her statistical support in the data analysis and Anna-Sofia Yurtaslan for assisting in proof reading of the final manuscript. DIGNITY Danish Institute Against Torture funded this research.
All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. There were no conflicts of interest.
This article is part of the special issue "Violence and Health: Implications of the 2030 Agenda for South-North Collaboration”.
About this article
Cite this article
Hansen-Nord, N.S., Kjaerulf, F., Almendarez, J. et al. Reducing violence in poor urban areas of Honduras by building community resilience through community-based interventions. Int J Public Health 61, 935–943 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-016-0854-4
- Violence prevention
- Social capital