Does self-efficacy mediate the association between socioeconomic background and emotional symptoms among schoolchildren?
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Emotional symptoms are widespread among adolescents with the highest prevalence among lower socioeconomic groups. Less is known about why and how to reduce this inequality but personal control, e.g., self-efficacy may be crucial. This study examines whether self-efficacy is a mediator in the association between occupational social class (OSC) and emotional symptoms.
Data stem from the cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-aged Children-Methodology Development Survey 2012 (HBSC-MDS) conducted among 11–15-year old schoolchildren in two Danish municipalities. Participation rate was 76.8 % of 5165 enrolled schoolchildren, n = 3969.
Low OSC is associated with higher odds of daily emotional symptoms and low selfefficacy. Schoolchildren with low self-efficacy have higher odds for daily emotional symptoms. We find a strong and statistically significant direct effect between low OSC and daily emotional symptoms (OR = 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.33; 1.84) and a borderline statistically significant indirect effect of self-efficacy [OR = 1.17 (0.99; 1.38)].
Socioeconomic inequality in emotional symptoms exists. This inequality is partly explained by socioeconomic inequality in self-efficacy. Promotion of personal competences like self-efficacy may reduce emotional symptoms among all socioeconomic groups, thereby reducing socioeconomic inequalities in emotional symptoms.
KeywordsMental health Adolescents Socioeconomic inequality Self-efficacy Emotional symptoms Mediation analysis
We would like to acknowledge the Nordea Denmark Foundation (02-2011-0122) for funding the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) 2012. The funders have had no influence on study design, data collection, analyses, and interpretation of results or writing of the manuscript.
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