International Journal of Public Health

, Volume 60, Issue 8, pp 911–917 | Cite as

Support for smoke-free policies in the Cyprus hospitality industry

  • Lambros Lazuras
  • Christos S. Savva
  • Michael A. Talias
  • Elpidoforos S. Soteriades
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

The present study used attitudinal and behavioural indicators to measure support for smoke-free policies among employers and employees in the hospitality industry in Cyprus.

Methods

A representative sample of 600 participants (95 % response rate) completed anonymous structured questionnaires on demographic variables, smoking status, exposure to second-hand smoke at work and related health beliefs, social norms, and smoke-free policy support.

Results

Participants were predominantly males (68.3 %), with a mean age of 40 years (SD = 12.69), and 39.7 % were employers/owners of the hospitality venue. Analysis of variance showed that employers and smokers were less supportive of smoke-free policies, as compared to employees and non-smokers. Linear regression models showed that attitudes towards smoke-free policy were predicted by smoking status, SHS exposure and related health beliefs, and social norm variables. Logistic regression analysis showed that willingness to confront a policy violator was predicted by SHS exposure, perceived prevalence of smoker clients, and smoke-free policy attitudes.

Conclusions

SHS exposure and related health beliefs, and normative factors should be targeted by interventions aiming to promote policy support in the hospitality industry in Cyprus.

Keywords

Smoke-free policies Hospitality industry Policy support Cyprus 

References

  1. Apollonio DE, Bero LA (2007) The creation of industry front groups: the tobacco industry and “get government off our back”. Am J Public Health 97:419–427. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.081117 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Borland R, Yong HH, Siahpush M, Hyland A, Campbell S, Hastings G, Cummings KM, Fong GT (2006) Support for and reported compliance with smoke-free restaurants and bars by smokers in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob control 15:iii34–iii41. doi:10.1136/tc.2004.008748 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Callinan JE, Clarke A, Doherty K, Kelleher C (2010) Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Coch Dat Syst Rev. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005992.pub2
  4. Germain D, Wakefield M, Durkin S (2007) Non-smokers’ responses when smokers light up: a population-based study. Prev Med 45:21–25. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gollwitzer PM, Sheeran P (2006) Implementation intentions and goal achievement: a meta-analysis of effects and processes. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 38:69–119. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(06)38002-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gonzalez M, Glantz SA (2013) Failure of policy regarding smoke-free bars in the Netherlands. Eur J Public Health 23:139–145. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckr173 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hang B, Sarker AH, Havel C et al (2013) Thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells. Mutagenesis 28:381–391. doi:10.1093/mutage/get013 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hofstede G (2011) Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context. Online Read Psychol Cult. doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1014 Google Scholar
  9. Joosens L, Raw M (2013) The tobacco control scale 2013 in Europe. Association of European Cancer Leagues (ECL), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  10. Karekla M, Symeou A, Tsangari H, Kapsou M, Constantinou M (2009) Smoking prevalence and tobacco exposure among adolescents in Cyprus. Eur J Public Health 19:655–661. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp064 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Klepeis NE, Hughes SC, Edwards RD et al (2013) Promoting smoke-free homes: a novel behavioral intervention using real-time audio-visual feedback on airborne particle levels. PLoS One 8:e73251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073251 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Laumbach R, Kipen H (2014) Mechanistic data support protecting non-smokers from the lethal effects of second-hand smoke. Int J Public Health. doi:10.1007/s00038-014-0550-1 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lazuras L, Eiser JR, Rodafinos A (2009a) Predicting smokers’ non-compliance with smoking restrictions in public places. Tob Control 18:127–131. doi:10.1136/tc.2008.025841 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lazuras L, Rodafinos A, Eiser R (2009b) Greece: smoking ban, or smoke and mirrors? Tob Control 18:343–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lazuras L, Zlatev M, Rodafinos A, Eiser JR (2012) Smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free air in the workplace: a study from the Balkans. Int J Public health 57:769–775. doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0338-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Li Q, Hyland A, O’Connor R, Zhao G, Du L, Li X, Fong GT (2010) Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey. Tob Control 19:i40–i46. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.029850 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD et al (2013) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet 380:2224–2260. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Louka P, Maguire M, Evans P, Worrell M (2006) ‘I think that it’s a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette’ Representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers. J Health Psychol 11:441–451. doi:10.1177/1359105306063317 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Macy JT, Chassin L, Presson CC (2013) The association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control measures. Nic Tob Res 15:291–296. doi:10.1093/ntr/nts117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mathers CD, Loncar D (2006) Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 3(11):e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Matt GE, Quintana PGE, Destaillats H et al (2013) Thirdhand tobacco smoke: emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect 119:1218–1226. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Öberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, Peruga A, Prüss-Ustün A (2011) Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet 377:139–146. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61388-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Poland BD, Cohen JE, Ashley MJ et al (2000) Heterogeneity among smokers and non-smokers in attitudes and behaviour regarding smoking and smoking restrictions. Tob Control 9:364–371PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ritch WA, Begay ME (2001) Strange bedfellows: the history of collaboration between the Massachusetts Restaurant Association and the tobacco industry. Am J Public Health 91:598–603PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Sivri C, Lazuras L, Rodafinos A, Eiser JR (2013) Smoke-free policies and non-smokers’ reactions to SHS exposure in small and medium enterprises. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 26:940–948. doi:10.2478/s13382-013-0166-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Tamvakas I, Amos A (2010) ‘These things don’t happen in Greece’: a qualitative study of Greek young people’s attitudes to smoking, secondhand smoke and the smokefree legislation. Health Educ Res 25:955–964. doi:10.1093/her/cyq048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. World Health Organization (2009) WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2009: implementing smoke-free environments. WHO, GenevaCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lambros Lazuras
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christos S. Savva
    • 3
  • Michael A. Talias
    • 4
  • Elpidoforos S. Soteriades
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Sociology and PoliticsSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  2. 2.South East European Research Centre (SEERC)ThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Department of Commerce, Finance and ShippingCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  4. 4.Postgraduate Healthcare Management ProgramOpen University of CyprusNicosiaCyprus
  5. 5.Department of Occupational and Environmental MedicineCyprus Institute of Biomedical Sciences (CIBS)NicosiaCyprus
  6. 6.Department of Environmental Health, Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology (EOME)Harvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations