Media use and depression: exposure, household rules, and symptoms among young adolescents in the USA
- 1.8k Downloads
To determine the longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between different types of electronic media use (mobile phones, TV, computers, video games, and music) and young adolescents’ depressive symptoms, and to explore the potential for household media rules to reduce young people’s depression.
126 young adolescents were recruited from the Northeastern USA. Each type of media use was assessed using survey questions, time use diaries, and ecological momentary assessment. The Beck Depression Index for Primary Care was administered at baseline and 1 year later as part of a questionnaire that also included items assessing the presence of household rules about TV and video games.
Baseline use of mobile phones and TV viewing were associated with higher levels of depression 1 year later controlling for demographic information and baseline depression score. Having household rules about TV at baseline predicted lower levels of depression at follow-up.
Both TV viewing and mobile phone use may contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Implementing household rules about the duration and content of TV could help reduce depression in young adolescents.
KeywordsMedia Depression Television Mobile phones Video games Adolescents
- Bellamy S, Hardy C (2014) Factors predicting depression across multiple domains in a national longitudinal sample of canadian youth. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1–11Google Scholar
- Bickham DS, Ross C, Heymann G, Rich M (2011) Measuring young adolescents’ media exposure: comparing estimates from two methods. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Child Development, Montreal, Canada, April, 2011Google Scholar
- Blood EA, Bickham DS, Shrier LA, Rich M (2014) Evaluating multiple intensively collected media use measures: validity and reliability of momentary assessments. Commun Methods Meas (in press)Google Scholar
- Cohen S, Mermelstein R, Kamarck T, Hoberman H (1985) Measuring the functional components of social support. In: Sarason I, Sarason B (eds) Social support: theory, research and applications, vol 24. NATO ASI Series. Springer, Netherlands, pp 73–94. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5115-0_5
- Goodman SH, Tully E (2008) Children of depressed mothers: implications for the etiology, treatment, and prevention of depression in children and adolescents. In: Abela JRZ, Hankin BL (eds) The handbook of depression in children and adolescents. Guiliford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Madden M, Lenhart A, Duggan M, Cortesi S, Gasser U (2013) Teens and technology 2013. Pew Internet & American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media/Files/Reports/2013/PIP_TeensandTechnology2013.pdf
- Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF (2010) Generation M2: media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo ParkGoogle Scholar
- Shiffman S (2000) Real-time self-report of momentary states in the natural environment: computerized ecological momentary assessment. Lawrence Erlbaum, MahwahGoogle Scholar
- Turkle S (1996) Virtuality and its discontents: searching for community in cyberspace. Am Prospect 24:50–57Google Scholar