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Online gaming and risks predict cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in adolescents



The present study examined factors associated with the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying and victimization in Taiwan.


A total of 2,315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors.


Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of risk factors (online game use, exposure to violence in media, internet risk behaviors, cyber/school bullying experiences) in the 10th grade coupled with an increase in risk factors from grades 10 to 11 could be used to predict the emergence of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. In contrast, lower levels of risk factors in the 10th grade and higher levels of protective factors coupled with a decrease in risk factors predicted the cessation of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization.


Online game use, exposure to violence in media, Internet risk behaviors, and cyber/school bullying experiences can be used to predict the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.

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We acknowledge two anonymous reviewers and editors for their helpful comments and suggestions. Many thanks go to the participant schools and students. This work was supported by a research grant from Taiwan National Science Council (NSC 99-2511-S-003-029-MY2).

Human subjects approval statement

The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of Taipei Medical University.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fong-Ching Chang.

Additional information

This article is part of the special issue “Communication Technology, Media Use and the Health of Our Kids”.

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Chang, FC., Chiu, CH., Miao, NF. et al. Online gaming and risks predict cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in adolescents. Int J Public Health 60, 257–266 (2015).

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  • Cyberbullying
  • Perpetration
  • Victimization