To evaluate the effects of household use of cleaning products during pregnancy on infant wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI).
In four prospective Spanish birth cohorts (n = 2,292), pregnant women reported the use of household cleaning products. When infants were 12–18 months old, current cleaning product use and infant’s wheezing and LRTI were reported. Cohort-specific associations between the use of specific products and respiratory outcomes were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses and estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses.
The period prevalence of LRTI was higher when sprays (combined odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.59) or air fresheners (OR = 1.29; CI 1.03–1.63) were used during pregnancy. The odds of wheezing increased with spray (OR = 1.37; CI 1.10–1.69) and solvent (OR = 1.30; CI 1.03–1.62) use. The associations between spray and air freshener use during pregnancy and both outcomes remained apparent when these products were not used after pregnancy. Nevertheless, the estimates were higher when post-natal exposure was included.
The use of cleaning sprays, air fresheners and solvents during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheezing and infections in the offspring.
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This study was funded by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176, CB06/02/0041, FIS-FEDER 03/1615, 04/1509, 04/1112, 04/1931, 05/1079, 05/1052, 06/1213, 07/0314 and 09/02647), the Conselleria de Sanitat Generalitat Valenciana, the Spanish Ministry of Health (FIS-PI041436, FIS- PI081151, FISS-PI042018, FISS-PI09/02311, FIS-PI06/0867 and FIS-PS09/00090), the Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT 1999SGR 00241, Obra Social Cajastur, Universidad de Oviedo, Department of Health of the Basque Government (2005111093 and 2009111069), Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa (DFG06/004 and DFG08/001), and Fundación Roger Torné. We acknowledge all the participants in the INMA project for their generous collaboration. A full roster of the INMA Project Investigators can be found at http://www.proyectoinma.org/presentacion-inma/listado-investigadores/en_listado-investigadores.html
This study was conducted on behalf of the INMA Project.
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Casas, L., Zock, J.P., Carsin, A.E. et al. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life. Int J Public Health 58, 757–764 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-012-0417-2
- Household products
- Respiratory tract infections
- Longitudinal studies